RAJENDRA's battle road towards GANGES
  • dear all,

    nd continue from the 6th line. Because to reach these destinations I have to ask the route with some foreign guides like YUVAN CHWANG and some one. It will take some time to consult them. So I will proceed by leaving the next 4 places temporarily,and lands at Aathi nagar.
    முதிர் பட வல்லை மதுரை மண்டலமும் ( mathura which surounded by itstrees of ripe fruits )
    காமிடைவளைஇய நாமணைக்கொணையும் ( namanaik konai which wassurrounded by its densed gardens )
    வெஞ்சினவீரர் பஞ்சப்பள்ளியும் (panjappalli which hadtough and boldwarriorpeople )
    பாசுடைப் பழன மாசுணி தேசமும் ( masuni desam which wasa oldest one )

    அயர்வில் வண்கீர்த்தி யாதி நகரவையில் ( Aathi nagar which had glorious records in the past )
      BEFORE get in to the AATHI nagar, I request you all to pardon me for the wrong translation of this line as “ AATHI nagar which had glorious records in the past ” is entirely wrong. I feel that The word  “ அயர்வில் வண்கீர்த்தி ” is a poetic comparison of a person's name. so I leave it as “ in the royal court of AATHI NAGAR …………………………”
    Now, let us move,
    In this name, I can’t find any place.
    While surfing I got a name of a city “ AATHI STHANA ” as the old name of the present Kashmir’s capital “ SRI NAGAR ”.
    Then I take a look in the meikkeerthi line, Aathi nagar, has been written together with the word “ அவையில் ” ( in the royal court ), this word have 2 considerable points.
    1. this shows that, this Aathi nagar is the capital of the country, because the Royal court is normally situated in the capital.
    2. As per the writing procedure in tamil, the line wont be stopped in the condition as “ அவையில் ”, this shows that the next line is connected together,
    So, I take a look in the next line
    சந்திரன் தொல் குலத் திந்திர ரதனை ( its kingIndra ratha whose race is moon )
    , it gives a name of a king named “ INDRA RATHA ” as a descendant of ancient race of moon. The MOON RACE , this clearly shows that the king belongs to the “ SOMA VAMSI ” dynasty.
      BUT, in the book of “ BHOJA RAJA ” P.T. Srinivasa Iyyangar says that, the kings of kashmir belongs to the “ KARKOTAKA ” clan and gives the king’s name as  “ SANKARA VARMAN ” And his son “ ANANTHA VARMAN ” ascended the throne in the year 1028.
      KALHANA’s “ RAJA THARANGINI ” also confirms the same.
    So, it confirms that “ INDRA RATHA ” is not the king for kashmir, also confirms “ AATHI NAGAR ” is NOT the capital for kashmir.
    Then I take look on the next two lines,
    விளையமர்க் களத்துக் கிளையொடும் பிடித்துப் ( taken as a captive in the battle field )
    பலதனத்தொடு நிறைகுல தனகுவையும் ( with histreasury, which was in afilled conditon )
      These two lines gives the war end details, that INDRA RATHA was defeated and taken as a captive with his family and  treasury.
    The next line is,
    கிட்டருஞ்செறிமிளை ஒட்ட விஷயமும் ( his provinceodda vishaya which was tough to approach )
     By the word “ odda ” we can identify that it notifies the “ ODRA country ”, in all the records it has been written as “ ODRA DESA ”. BUT , RJC records it as“ ODDA visayam”. I’ve got strucked at this place.
      While reading the book “ PERSONAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL  NAMES IN THE GUPTHA INSCRIPTIONS ”  I got a detail that gupthas had divided their kingdom, as administrative units by the terms “ BHUKTI , VISAYA , MANDALA  and etc…
    This “ visaya ” is the word which is connected with “ ODDA ”, to show that the “ ODRA DESA ” is a PROVINCE for the king INDRA RATHA. If the “ ODRA DESA ” is a province, the  country that he had ruled is given in the following line
    பூசுரர் சேர்நல் கோசலநாடும் ( his, KOSALAcountry which had numerous brahmanas )
      So, The INDRA RATHA who belongs to the SOMAVAMSI clan is the KING of the  KOSALA COUNTRY.
    But, theBANPUR copper plates which was granted on the 6th reigning year of INDRA RATHA gives his capital as YAYATI NAGARA.
    As per the above details, We can understand that this YAYATI NAGAR has been simplified as AATHI NAGAR in the RAJENDRA’s MEIKEERTHI.
    Now We can Define that the KING INDRA RATHA who was defeated by RAJENDRA was the RULER of the KOSALA COUNTRY had  ODRA DESA as a PROVINCE and its  capital was “ YAYATI NAGARA ” .
    A grant of the KALINGA king, VAJRA HASTHA V ( 5 ) who ascended the throne in the year 1038 after his father MADHU KAMARNAVA’s rule of 19 years, says that He brought 10000 numbers of brahmanas from the KOSALA country to kalinga. So, we can confirm that as the KOSALA country was crowded by brahmanas.
    Most of the scholars identify YAYATI NAGAR as present JAJPUR in orissa.
    scholars identifies ODRA DESA was stretched from the Rushikulya river in  GANJAM district to BELLASORE district of orissa.
    KOSALA country, all the scholars roughlyidentifies this countryas the DHAKSHINA kosala kingdom or MAHA KOSALA kingdom which was stretched from AYODHYA of uttar pradesh as northern, kalahandi district of orissa as south eastern, sambalpur district of orissa as eastern, raipur district of chattisgargh as western boundaries of this country.

    CAN any one confirm me that am I proceeding in the right direction.

    Thanking you.
  • Date:6-9-2010

    Anbumikka Thiru Sakthi Sree,

    I am 'very pleased' that you too are doing active research in identifying some places mentioned in the Rajendra Chola - 1 Meikeeththi, which were not properly identified by the earlier Historians.

    In connection with Athi Nagar, I am posting an extract from my Research Article of many years back, to be posted in the PSVP Website soon 'with modifications' in the light of my new findings - just for your information and assistance. The title of my Article was "INDENTIFICATION OF PURVADESAM CONQUERED BY EMPEROR RAJENDRA CHOLA - 1 OF SOUTH INDIA.


    Al-Beruni makes references to the capital of Kashmir of his period as Adhishthana (Athisthana in Tamil) - having the same meaning as Athi Nagar of Rajendra Chola's Meikeerthi, which are follows:

    "....the people of Kashmir celebrate a festival on the 26th and 27th of this month on account of certain pieces of wood called "Gana" which the water of the river Vitasta carries in those two days through the capital Adhishthana...." Al-Beruni's India - Vol 2, Page 181

    "....thence leaving the ravine you enter the plain and reach in two more days Addishtan (i.e.Adhishthana as seen from the above reference of Al-Beruni himself) the capital of Kashmir, passing on the road the village Ushkara...." Al-Beruni's India Vol - 1, Page 207

    In the light of the above it is clear that Athisthana was the capital of Kashmir in the medieval period (around A.D.1030) while Sri Nagar was the capital of Kashmir at subsequent periods.

    This is further confirmed by the fact the river "Vitasta" (the present Jelum River) which flowed through the Adhishthana during the time of Al-Beruni is today flowing through Sri Nager in Kashmir.

    Hence we could surmise that Athi Nagar was the Tamil equivalent of the Adhishthana (Athi-isthanam)of Alberuni which was in then Kashmir, which over a period of time changed into Sri Nagar.

    This Athi-isthanam was possibly the Athi Nager of Rajendra Chola's longer Meikeerthi, and the Purvadesam of the smaller Meikeerthi, as Purvadesam in Sanskrit means same as Athi Nagar in Tamil.

    This has a parallel, where the Tamil portion of Rajaraja Chola - 1 in Thiruvaalangadu Copper Plates refers to a village as Palaiyanur, while the Sanskrit portion of same Plates but of Rajendra Chola - 1 refers to this identical village as Puranagrama having the same meaning.

    Trust the above will be of interest to you.

    Did you go through my Map showing the regions captured by Rajendra Chola - 1 in his North Indian expedition uploaded to PSVP File section.

    Mikka Anbudan

  • dear sir,

     PLS DONT MISTAKE ME sir, I Wants to tell you something,about the word "அயர் வில் வண் கீர்த்தி ” . after for a long analyzing I got a lead that this word is a poetic comparison of person's name.


     if it is right, Aathi nagar is YAYATI NAGAR. ITs founderwas JANAMEJAYA YAYATI1.He established it ashiscapital after conquering the ODRA DESA. 

      Alberuni, also says that,
    Kashmir lies on a plateau surrounded by high inaccessible mountains. The south and east of the country
    belong to the Hindus.( alberuni's india volume 1 p-206).

    Inthe page 173,

    Alphabets, the Gauri (Gaudi), used in Purvadesa, i.e. the
    Eastern country ; the Bhaikshuki, used in Udunpur in
    Purvadesa. This last is the writing of Buddha.

     Most of the scholars identify this " UDUNPUR " as " UDDANTAPURA " as the present BIHAR.BY this word " GAUDI " its clearly shows that PURVA DESA BELONGS TO THE EASTERN REGION OF INDIA.GAUDA kingdom was also in the eastern region.


    the kashmir kings had a good relationship with the HINDU SHAHI kings. After thedeath of last shahi king in the year 1026, his son and brothers were appointed as high officials in the kashmir kingdom. ( Kalhana's RAJATARANGINI ).

    Hindu shahi kings also had a good relationshipwith the kings ofCHEDI, MALWA and KALANJAR with whom RJC also had a good relationship.So that,There is no possiblity to attackKASHMIR BY RJC.

       THIS IS my openion sir.

      BY my next post I try to write the details of NAMNAIK KONAI, PANJAPPALLI And MASUNI DESA. these details may convince you about Aathi nagar.

    Thanking You.
  • Date: 7-9-2010

    Anbudaiya Thiru Sakthi Sri,

    I appreciate your great enthusiasem in trying to discover the actual locations of some the regions mentioned in Rajendra Chola - 1's Meikeerththi.

    With respect to "Purvadesam" we are making a big mistake in following what the earlier Historians had in view - that is it means the "Eastern Country". Purvadesam correctly means "ancient country" or in other word "Athi Nagar" or "Athi-sthanam" (Athi = ancient). This has prevented the early Historians from correctly identifying these regions.

    Even 'Edward Satchu' who translated Al-beruni's India has referred to Purvadesam as Eastern Country 'which is not acceptable to me'. "Puruva" as per Miron Winslow's Tamil-English dictionary means more as "Ancient" than as "East". Now if we accept this fact, then identifying the other regions too go into new dimensions.

    This argument of mine is further confirmed beyond doubt, by the reference in the Tamil Epic Manimekalai in which it is stated as "Kaanthaara Naattu Purvadesam". Here "Kaanthaara Nadu" is the Gandhara country. Gandhara country was in Jammu-Kashmir. Hence we are now sure of the actual locations of Purvadesam or Athi Nagar.

    Further as per Al-Beruni's India one language that was spoken in Purvadesam was "Gauri" and not Gaudi. The other language was "Bhaik-shuki". Collin Davies in his Historical Atlas has noted the people of Hunza and Nagar in the presnt Jammu-Kasmir region speak a language called "Buru-Shashki". This "Buru-Shashki" closely resembles "Bhaik-shuki" of Al-Beruni. Hence this too gives a further hint where Purvadesam or Athi Nagar could have been, which we find was the former "Athisthana" and present "Sri Nagar" of Kashmir region.

    I still could not very positively locate the region "Naamanaikkonam" but tentatively located same in Haryana state. So I will be much pleased if you could come forth with your findings on this region and its actual location.

    Mikka Anbudan

  • Dear Friends,

    earlier mail on the subject.

    Dear VR,

    we have discussed this earlier, I hope it helps.

    rgds/ sps

    Re: Rajendra chola 's inscriptions :: Ganges Expeditions

    sps wrote on 18.8.2006 ::

    DEAR SK Pillai,

    Secondary source (1) : RAJENDRA I - Heading :Wars of Rajendra I -
    Pages 12 to 130 - BY M.RAJASEKARA THANGAMANI, History Deptt, Karur
    Arts College, Trichy Dt. Nov 1973.

    (2) Thamizhaga Varalaaru : Makkalum Panpadum :: KK Pillai Page 270 -
    lines 3 - 7 - " Rajendra rushed to help Vidhyadharan, whose common
    friends are Bojan and Kangeyan."

    PRIMARY : " UDAYAR Shree Rajendra Chozha thevar UTTHARAPAADHATHIL
    Boopathiyaarai JEYITHARULI YUTHOSAVA Vibavathaal Gangai Parikiragam
    panniyarulina GANGAI KONDA CHOZHANENNUM thirunamathal
    ITHTHIRUMUTRATHIL vaithu Arulina UTHAMAAKKIRAM Gangai konda Chozhanil
    .. " South Arcot Dt ENNARIRAM inscriptions...

    This SEALS the speculations that it was Rajendra's THEERTHA yathirai - friendly trip etc., etc., once and for all.

    JAYASINGA's KULENUR inscriptions mention the trio Bojan - Kangeyan -
    Rajendra fought in support of Saanthala Vidhyadharan against Gazni :
    Page 123 / Secondary source 1

    PRIMARY: Dandaputhi conquest :: Ep Indica Vol XXII 153 / 154

    Rajendra's army brought Ganges water in vessels : T.A.S. Vol III No:
    34, Kanyakumari inscriptions.

    Rajendra's army Crossed Ganges on the backs of Elephants stood in a
    row :: Thiruvalangadu CP : SII Vol III - verse 112;

    Rajendra met the C-in-C on the banks of Godhavari - verse 118, 119 and 122. Gangai Konda Cholapuram - GKC - Jala Jaya Sthambam - ASI 1911 - 12 PP
    173 - 174.

    Best Regards / sps



  • Date: 7-9-2010

    Anbudaiya Thiru "Sivapathasekaran" Vanakkam.

    I remember reading in the Thanjavur Rajarajaeswarem Temple Inscriptions
    as, ".....Sivapathasekaran entrum Sri Rajarajan entrum thirunaamam
    udaiyan aandu irupaththonpathaavathu varai kuduththa velliyin
    Thiruparikalankal......" which "made me think of you at that time" - a
    personality with the great name of the greatest Tamil Emperor the
    Rajaraja Chola - 1. This is found in the left side of the second Gopura
    Vaayil at this temple.

    With reference to the Datas provided by you below while thanking you
    very much for same, I wish to advice I made good use of the statement
    about region "Uttarapatham" mentioned in the Ennayiram Inscription and
    the "Kulenur Inscription" in addition to many other informations, and
    wrote a very long Research Article "many years back" titled
    "Identification of Purvadesam conquered by Rajendra Chola - 1", but was
    completely rejected by a very Senior Retired Epigraphist of Chennai at
    that time who is now no more. The Map on same prepared by me (now
    uploaded to the PSVP FILES Section) submitted along with this article
    too was not accepted by him. May be he was still with the mindset of his
    old theory that the Athi Nagar, Panchapalli, Naamanaikkonam, Masunidesam
    all were within the close proximity of Sakkarakottam.

    Any how now I find more clear thinking youngsters like you and others
    who too have felt that these regions have to be looked elsewhere towards
    north-west India.

    I am giving below the extract of my article titled "Rajarajaeswarem and
    Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem - Siva Temples" now appearing in
    mayyam.com/hub/history - Web Site, dealing with Rajendra Chola's North
    Indian expedition briefly.


    Rajendra Cholan - 1 with his capture of many regions in the Indian
    mainland after a lapse of two years he became more ambitious in
    conquering the northern and north-western regions of India.

    He commenced his war expedition in this direction in the year A.D.1021
    with his capture of Sakkarakkoattam the south Chhattisgarh.

    Ganges river in the north and the other in the north-western direction
    while he stationed himself at Sakkarakkoattam until the two expeditions
    were complete.

    The first expedition went towards the north-west of India from
    Sakkarakkoattam direct to the Mathuramandalam crossing the Kalachuria,
    Chandella and Paramara kingdoms in between, enabled by the friendly ties
    the Cholas had with these countries. Chola forces thus captured the
    kingdoms of Mathuramandalam the west Uttar Pradesh, Namanaikkonam of
    north Haryana, Panchappalli of east Punjab (of Pakistan) Maasunidesam of
    north Punjab (of Pakistan) and Athinagar (the Purvadesam - Purva means
    ancient) of south Kashmir. The great Tamil Epic - Manimekalai
    specifically states that "Purvadesam - was in the Gandhara country"
    which encompassed the south Kashmir region. Further Al-Beruni states
    "....Udunpur in Purvadesa.....". Udunpur is undoubtedly the present
    Udhampur of south Jammu & Kashmir - a derivation from Udunpur to
    Udhumpur and then to Udhampur.

    The latter three were the regions of Uttarapatham. Rajendra Cholan - 1
    claims in one of his inscription from Ennaayiram that he also won the
    "kings of Uttarapatham". Dharmasastra of Manu states Uttarapatham lies
    to the west of the place where river Sarawathi disappears. Great Indian
    Epic Mahabharata states ".....the Yavanas, Kambojas, Gandaras, Kiratas,
    and Barbarahs who were born in Uttarapatham......", which were all
    situated in north-western India. Nepali Manuscripts says
    "....Purushapuram territory in Uttarapatham.....". Purushapura is the
    present Peshawar in the upper Sind valley region of present Pakistan.
    Kaviya Mimansa states the Uttarapatha lay on the western side of
    Prthudaka. The Prthudaka was formerly situated north of present Delhi.
    The foregoing indicates to us somewhat accurately the regions covered by
    Uttarapatham, which was conquered by Rajendra Cholan - 1

    This expedition of the forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 towards the
    north-west of India, was most possibly to assist his ally Paramara Bhoja
    of Malawa of south Madya Pradesh to fight the invasion of Mahumad of
    Gazni of west Afghanistan, and also relieve the kingdoms that already
    fell victims to his invasions, namely the Kanyakubja, Mathura,
    Namanaikkonam, Panchappalli, Masunidesam and Athinagar.

    The confedaracy that existed between the Bhoja king of Malawa and
    Rajendra Chola - 1 is 'confirmed' by an inscription from Balagamve in
    south Maharashtra which refers to Cholas "as the greatest of kings".
    Another inscription from Kulenur in Karnataka confirms this confederacy
    was not only between Bhoja of Malawa and Rajendra Chola, but also
    inclusive of Gangeya of Kalachuria.

    The second expedition went towards towards river Ganges in the north
    from Sakkarakkoattam and captured the regions of Odda Vishayam of
    Orissa, Kosala Naadu the north Chhattisgarh, Thandabuththi in north
    Orissa , Thakkana Laadam in south Jharkhand, Vangala desam the
    Bangaladesh, Uttara Laadam of north Jharkhand and reached the great
    river Ganges.

    The Chola Indian Mainland expedition ended in A.D.1022 and details of
    the countries conquered by his forces in this single expedition was
    included in his Meikeerthi's from the year A.D.1023

    With the return of the of the Chola forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 to
    Chola capital, from their victorius expedition to Uttarapatham and
    Gangetic region countries in A.D.1022, the Royal Guru of Rajendra Cholan
    - 1 the Isaanasiva Pandithar built a temple at Kulampandel in Tamil Nadu
    named as Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple.

    With his return Rajendra Cholan - 1 claimed a new title as
    "Gangaikondaan" and gave the title "Gangaikonda Cholan" (the Chola who
    captured Gangai) to his younger brother who lead the Gangetic

    Rajendra Cholan - 1 commenced the construction of a new city named the
    "Gangaikonda Cholapuram", with a new Siva Temple named "Gangaikonda
    Cholaeswarem", and a big 'temple water tank' named the "Chola Gangam"
    where the holy water brought in from the Ganges River was mixed.

    The Essalam Copper Plates of Rajendra Cholan - 1 specifically states
    that with the conquest of the Gangetic region, it was Rajendra Cholan -
    1 who constructed the new city the Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the great
    Gangaikonda Choleswarer temple, and the sacred Cholagangam Tank at the
    Udaiyar Palaiyam region of Ariyalur district.

    Mikka Anbudan

  • MIKKA NANDRI -thiru Virarajendra avalgale.

    warm rgds / sps

  • dear all,
      by leaving temporarily this " purva desam and pala region " I go back to the " Panjappalli ", because this point decides the other two points of Namanaik konai and Masuni desa.

    வெஞ்சின வீரர் பஞ்சப்பள்ளியும் (panjappalli which hadtough and boldwarriorpeople )
    ( வெஞ்சின – this word need to confirm with 12th year meikeerthi of RJC )
    by the exact words there is one Panjappalli in dharmapuri district, tamil nadu, which Can not be considered. after for a long search I give it up. but while reading,
    the book ALBERUNI's India, there I got a name Panca nada ( panj nad by alexander cunningham ), there an explanation has been provided about the place as follows,
    The river Biyatta known as jailum, from the city of this name on  its western banks, and the river Candaraha
    join each other nearly fifty miles above Jahravar,
    and pass along west of Multan.

    The river Biyah flows east of Multan, and joins afterwards
    the Biyatta and Candaraha.

    The river Irava is joined by the river Kaj, which rises
    in Nagarkot in the mountains of Bhatul.

    Thereupon follows as the fifth the river Shatladar (Satlej).
    After these five rivers have united below MULTAN
    at a place calledPANCA NADA , ( panjnad ) i.e. the meeting-place of the five rivers, ( பஞ்சப்பள்ளி )they form an enormous watercourse.

    In flood-times it sometimes swells to such a degree
    as to cover nearly a space of ten farsakh ( approx 40 miles ), and to rise above the tree of the plains, so that afterwards the
    rubbish carried by the floods is found in their highest
    branches like birds-nests.

    The Muslims call the river, after it has passed the
    Sindhi city Aror, as a united stream, the river of

    Thus it extends, flowing straight on, becoming
    broader and broader, and gaining in purity of
    water, enclosing in its course places like islands, until
    it reaches Almansura, situated between several of its
    arms, and flows into the ocean at two places, near the
    city Loharani, and more eastward in the province of
    Kacch at a place called Sindhu-sagara, i.e. the Sindh
    THIS PLACE was also mentioned in the name of ( pichen- po- pu- lo ) by yuan chwang. Which gives some sound as our panjappalli. In the book“ the ancient geography of  india ” alexander cunningham says that this name is the another name for the city of ALOR or AROR  below multan.

    this place is very Important because the GANGES river crossing point liesnear to this place.

    thanking you
  • dear all,

    after verifying with " THE CHOLAS " by KAN and south indian inscriptions, I change the line as,

    வெஞ்சிலை வீரர் பஞ்சப்பள்ளியும் (panjappalli which hadtough and boldwarriorpeople )
      I feel that the word " வெஞ்சிலை" must be an interpretation of the word " வெஞ்சீலை"by the poet,who composed the meikeerthi. this word can beseparated as " வெண் + சீலை" which exactly shows the people's dress code of the ARABS , that who were ruling this area around thattimefrom 8th century. This MULTAN province in PAKISTAN,wascalled as " MULASTHANAPURA ".

    This confluence of thefive rivers, nowcalled as PANJNAD river, this flows about 45 milesand join with theGANGES ( INDUS ) near bythe city " MITHUNKOT".

    Why I mention GANGES instead of INDUS, the reason as follows,

    A Quote from Al-beruni's INDIA,

    The Matsya-Purana says:

    After the GANGES had
    settled on earth, it divided itself into seven arms, the Matya or middle of which is the main stream, known as the

    Three flowed eastward, Nalini, Hradini,
    and Pavani, and three westward Sita, Cakshu, and

    The river Sita rises in the Himavant, and flows
    through these countries : Salila, Karstuba, Cina, Yarvara,
    Yavasa (?), Baha, Pushkara, Kulata, Mangala,
    Kavara, and Sangavanta (?) ; then it falls into the
    western ocean.

    South of Sita flows the river Cakshus, which irrigates
    the countries Cina, Maru, Kalika (?), Dhulika (?), Tukhara,
    Barbara, Kaca (?), Palhava, and Barwancat.
    The river SINDHU flows through the countries Sindhu,
    Darada, Zindutunda (?), Gandhara, Rurasa (?), Krura (?),
    Sivapaura, Indramaru, Sabati (?), Saindhava, Kubata,
    Bahimarvara, Mara, Mruna, and Sukurda.

    The river Ganges, which is the middle and main
    stream, flows through the Gandharva, the musicians,
    Kimnara, Yakshas, Rakshasa, Vidyadhara, Uraga, i.e.
    those who creep on their breasts, the serpents, Kalapagrama,
    i.e. the city of the most virtuous, Kimpurusha,
    Khasa (?), the mountaineers, Kirata, Pulinda, the
    hunters in the plains, robbers, Kuru, Bharata, Pancala,
    Kaushaka (?), Matsya, Magadha, Brahmottara, and
    Tamalipta. These are the good and bad beings
    through whose territories the Ganges flows. Afterwards
    it enters into branches of the mountain Vindhya,
    where the elephants live, and then it falls into
    the southern ocean.

    Of the eastern Ganges arms, the Hradini flows through
    the countries Nishaba, Upakana, Dhivara, Prishaka,
    Nilamukha, Kikara, Ushtrakarna, i.e. people whose lips
    are turned like their ears, Kirata, Kalidara, Vivarna, i.e.
    the colourless people, so called on account of their intense
    blackness, Kushikana, and Svargabhumi, i.e. a country
    like Paradise. Finally it falls into the eastern ocean.

    AND, also some legends says that the riverflows through the " SINDHU DESA " is called by the name " SINDU ".

    BY the above details we can consider that The river SINDU isalso " GANGES " which flows in the west.

    After verifyingsome places, This place only situates to PANJAPPALLI along with GANGES war.

    There is a notification in a copper plate of RJC that " His general crrossed the ganges by an elephant bridge " this must be happened at this place only, as per the meikeerthi the GANGES in India, NEVER crossed. To sure that I have to get back to the PALA region.

    t those details, I will give the whole details contains the REASON of this war and the details of the king who was defeated by RJC's Younger BROTHER " ERIVALI GANGAI KONDA CHOLA ( எறிவலி கங்கை கொண்ட சோழன் )" and his general.

    I will come back soon with the details of PALAS.

    thanking you
  • dear all,

     because of tight work schedule, its got a bit delayed to compile the details, of the pala region.

     now, I proceed from " DANDA BHUKTI "

    தன்மபாலனை வெம்முனை யழித்து ( dhanma pala whomet death in a tough war )
    வண்டுறை சோலை தண்டபுத்தியும் (whose land is danda bukthi whichhad gardens with lots ofbees. )
    Dandabhukti a territorial unit of ancient Bengal, located in the southwestern part of West Bengal (India). Dandabhukti or Dandabhuktimandala emerged into prominence in the first half of the seventh century AD when it was ruled by Mahapratihara Shubhakirti, who was a subordinate ruler under shasanka , the King of gauda. Samanta-maharaja Somadatta, who served under Shashanka, was entrusted with the administration of Dandabhuktimandala and Utkala. Dandabhukti is mentioned as a distinct geopolitical unit in several epigraphic records: the two Midnapur copper plates of Shashanka, Irda copper plate of the rulers of Bengal, sandhyakar nandi also mentions it in his ramacharitam.

    On the basis of the available evidence Dandabhukti may be taken to have comprised the southwest of Bengal, particularly southern and southwestern regions of the modern district of Midnapur in West Bengal and a part of the district of Balasore in Orissa. The memory of Dandabhukti survives in the name of the modern locality of Dantan/Datan in the district of Midnapur.

    Two copperplate grants of a Bhaumakara queen refer to Dandabhukti mandala as being attached to the Uttara-Toshali and having contained Tamala-Khanda and Daksina-Khanda districts. These two districts have been identified with Tamluk and Dakinmal respectively, which are also mentioned as parganas in the Mughal revenue accounts of Midnapur district. The Irda copper plate (10th century AD) records the inclusion of the Dandabhukti mandala within the Vardhamana bhukti, ruled by the Kamboja Kings.
    The well-known archaeological sites like Tamluk, Bahiri and Dantan/Datan in Midnapur district, West Bengal produced numerous antiquities throwing light on the trade, commerce and culture of the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal. tamralipti may have been included within the Dandabhukti settlement.


    The narrative in the Records proceeds to relate that from
    Samatata the pilgrim journeyed west for over 900 li to
    Tan-molik-ti. This country was about 1400 li in circuit; its capital,
    above ten li in circuit, was near an inlet of the sea; the land
    was low and moist, farming was good, fruit and flowers abounded,

    the climate was liot, the customs of the people were rude, the inhabitants
    were courageous, and they were believers in Buddhism
    and other systems. Of Deva-Temples there were more than 60, and the Non-Buddhists lived together pell-mell. There were above ten Buddhist Monasteries and more than 1000 Brethren.
    The country formed a bay where land and water communication met; consequently rare valuables were collected in it and so its inhabitants were generally prosperous. Beside the capital was an Asoka tope and Dear this were vestiges of the Four Past Buddhas' sitting and exercise grounds.

    Now, i proceed to the nextdestination,

    இரணசூரனை முரணுறத் தாக்கி
    திக்கணைக் கீர்த்தி தக்கண இலாடமும் (southernlata whichwaswell known in all directions, captured after defeating RANA SHURAin a terrible war.
    All the scholars considers, This LATA as RADHA .
    I got these details from a web site and verified it with the historians. 

    A distinct geopolitical unitof ancient Bengal which probably included a large part of the modern Indian state of West Bengal. The earliest reference to Radha/ Rarha/ Ladha/ Lara is to be found in the Jaina chronicle, Acharangasutra where it is related that Mahavira travelled in the pathless country of 'Ladha' in Vajjabhumi and Subbhabhumi in the sixth century BC in trying to propagate religion. During this period the settlement was 'pathless and lawless' and its people treated Mahavira harshly.

    Inscriptional details of RADHA

    Dipavangsha and Mahavangsha record the tradition that Sri Lanka was colonised by Vijaya who hailed from Simhapura in 'Lala', is identified with Radha.

    The earliest epigraphic reference to Radha is possibly found in an inscription from Mathura which records the erection of a Jaina image at the request of a Jaina monk who was an inhabitant of the territory of 'Rara'.

    The epigraphic records from Khajuraho refer to the wives of the kings of different kingdoms including Radha as being imprisoned by the Chandella ruler.

    The Naihati Copper plate inscription of vallalasena mentions Radha as the ancestral settlement of the Senas.

    The Bhuvaneshvara inscription of Bhatta Bhavadeva records that Radha was a waterless, dry and woody region, a description that suits the western part of Bengal.

    A tradition mentioned in Digvijayaprakasha locates to Radha the north of River Damodar and to the south of gauda.

    Daksina-Radha is also mentioned in the Gaonri Plates of Vakpati Munja (10th century), Shridharacharya's Nyayakandali, the Amareshvara Temple inscription of Mandhata (Nimar district in Madhya Pardesh), Krsna Mishra's Prabodha-Chandrodaya and Mukundarama's Chandimangal (1593-94 AD).

    On the basis of the above records we come to know that Daksina Radha included different large settlements of the modern districts of Howrah, Hughli and Burdwan in West Bengal, or considerable portions of West Bengal lying between the rivers Ajay and Damodar.

    In all probability, its southern boundary reached the Rupanarayan and its western boundary extended beyond the Damodar far into the Arambagh sub-division.

    Aparo Mandala, which was very closely connected with Daksina-Radha as a territory and subject to the same ruling family (Shura) in the 11th century AD, was perhaps identical with Mandaran in the Arambagh sub-division of Hughli.

    Regarding the major settlements of Radha it may be noted that Shridharacharya and Krsna Mishra mentioned the two famous villages - Bhurisrsta or Bhurishresthika and Navagram; this is in addition to Mukundrama's mention of his own village of Damunya or Daminya. Bhurisrsta or Bhurishresthika is identified with the modern village of Bhurasut in the district of Howrah; whereas Navagram and Damunya or Daminya can be identified with villages in the districts of Hughli and Burdwan respectively.

    Regarding the existence of large settlements in the form of administrative and commercial centres, large villages, as well as nucleus village settlements in the geographical unit of RADHA , it may justifiably be suggested that well-known archaeological sites like Mahanad, Betur (in Howrah district), Saptagram, Garh Mandaran, (in Hughli district), Bharatpur, Mangalkot (in Burdwan district) and possibly Dihar and Puskarana (in Bankura district) belong to Daksina-Radha;

    are all these details acceptable?

    I have a map which shows all theancient named pala empire. I will attach it in my next post.

    thanking you.

    with bestregards,

  • dear all,
    Now I proceed to the next destination,
    கோவிந்த சந்தன் மாவிழிந்தோடத்
    தங்காத சாரல் வங்காள தேசமும் ( vangala desa which had a good drainage system to avoid flood,captured by defeating the kingGOVINDHA CHANDRA whoescaped fromhis elephantfrom the battle field. )
    Chandra Dynasty

    They ruled in south-eastern Bengal (vanga and samatata) for about a century and a half from the beginning of the 10th century AD.
    The epigraphic records provide clear evidence of a continuous rule of this dynasty for five generations in Vanga and Samatata when the Palas were ruling in northern and western Bengal and Bihar.
    Purnachandra and Suvarnachandra, were landlords in Rohitagiri (possibly Lalmai region) as vassals of the Harikela rulers. It was Trailokyachandra (c 900 - 930 AD), son of Suvarnachandra, who was the first independent ruler of the dynasty. He established their sovereign rule in Samatata area with devaparvata as their centre of power and gradually spread it over chandradvipa and parts of Vanga, and assumed the title of maharajadhiraja.
    One of the verses of Ladahachandra's Mainamati plate records that under him Vanga was rising in prosperity. The ascendancy of Trailokyachandra in Samatata was in all probability contemporaneous with the rise of the Kambojas in western and northern Bengal within the Pala empire.
    It was during the rule of his son and successor, Srichandra (c 930 - 975 AD), the administrative centre of the Chandra kingdom was established at vikramapura in Vanga.
    Srichandra was undoubtedly the most important king of the dynasty and his long reign of about 45 years witnessed the apogee of their success. He is credited to have spread his empire over the entire Vanga region and ventured out into the Kamarupa area in the north-east. His copper-plate, found in Paschimbhag village in Moulvibazar district, records his exploits in Kamarupa as well as his attempts at settling a large number of Brahmins in the Sylhet area. He also matched his arms against the Gaudas (either the Kamboja Gaudapatis or the Palas) and he may have played a vital role in saving the tottering Pala power under Gopala II (In one verse of the Paschimbhag plate he is mentioned as Gopala sangropane mahotsavaguru). Lands granted by his six available copperplates and the information provided by the plates of his successors bear testimony to his rule over a vast territory in Vanga and Samatata area.
    Only one copperplate of Srichandra's son and successor Kalyanachandra (c 975-1000 AD) has so far been discovered. The copperplates of Kalyanachandra's successors mention that he made his power felt in Gauda and Kamarupa. He may have given a final blow to the Kamboja power in northern and western Bengal and thereby paved the way for the revival of Pala power under mahipala i. His two successors were Ladahachandra (c 1000-1020 AD) and govindachandra, son and grandson of Kalyanachandra respectively, who could maintain the glory of the dynasty and are praised for their liberal policies.
    Govindachandra is the last known king of the dynasty. This war during his rule Vangaladesha.
    தொடு கழற் சங்கொட்ட மஹிபாலனை
    வெஞ்சமர் வளாகத் தஞ்சுவித்தருளி ( the king MAHI PALAwho defeated in a tough war which held close to the sea )
    ஒண்திறல் யானையும் பெண்டிர் பண்டாரமும் ( hisgreat elephants, treasury and women also captured)
    நித்தில நெடுங்கடல் உத்தர லாடமும் ( his country,Northern lata which liesnear bythe lengthy sea which had pearls)
    வெறிமலர் தீர்த்தத்து எறிபுனல் கங்கையும் ( also captured ganges which was filled by flowers at its banks )

    The Belava copper plate of Bhojavarman refer to the village of Siddhala in Uttara-Radha as the birthplace of Bhatta Bhavadeva.

    The Naihati grant of Vallalasena also mentions a village named Vallahittaha in Svalpadaksinavithi of Uttara-Radha mandala.

    Siddhala has been identified with Siddhalagram in modern Birbhum in West Bengal.

    The other village mentioned in the Naihati grant has been identified with Balutiya on the northern fringe of the district of Burdwan.

    It is worth mentioning that the Shaktipur grant of laksmanasena states the location of northern Radha in the Kankagram-bhukti whereas according to the Naihati grant northern Radha was a part of Vardhaman-bhukti.

    The river Ajay is usually regarded as constituting the boundary line between north and south Radha.

    However, on the basis of different epigraphic records we may assume that northern Radha comprised the western parts of the modern district of Mursidabad, the entire district of Birbhum, including some parts of Santal Parganas, and the northern part of the Katwa sub-division of Burdwan district.

    whereas sites like Rajbadidanga and Gitagram (in Murshidabad district), Paikor, Batikar, Bahiri, Kagas, Kotasur (in Birbhum district) and Vallalarajardhibi (in Nadia district) belong to Uttara-Radha. Their archaeological assemblages and traditional accounts show the existence of settlements that may help us to visualise the emergence of Radha as a distinct geopolitical unit in the early medieval period.

    Now look into the Meikeerthi words,
    தொடு கழற் சங்கொட்ட மகிபாலனை
      This line doesn’t give enough meaning. The journal “ chola invasion on bengal ” says that, The word ” கழல் ” seems to be an pronouncial interpretation of the word ” கடல் ” .
    The word “ சங்கொட்ட ” can be splited as “ சங்கு + ஒட்ட ”.
    Now the line “ தொடு கடற் சங்கு ஒட்ட மகிபாலனை வெஞ்சமர் வளாகத்து அஞ்சுவித்தருளி ” this line shows that the battle field was near by the sea and The king mahipala got panic in the battle.
    ஒண்திறல் யானையும் பெண்டிர் பண்டாரமும்
    ( capturing of the great elephants and the jewels of women. This war end details gives the REASON for this war. How? Lets look it at the end )
    நித்தில நெடுங்கடல் உத்தர லாடமும்
    I have attached a map of the pala region, as per the map this UTTARA RADHA was not situated near by the sea. This line shows that the king MAHIPALA had his hold upto the sea. That is, he is the over lord for all these territories.
    The battle field was near by the sea, this shows that the king advanced towards the sea tracts.
    How it is possible that, a king advancing to attack an enemy through another king’s lands.
    The word LATA was used by the guptas to indicate their administrative divisions. As per their records present gujrat was named by the exact words of “ uttara lata and dhakshin lata ” as their administrative divisions.
    This one shows that this LATA was a divisional region of the King. The “ BHUKTI ” also a divisional region. The kings Dhanma pala, Ranasura and Govindha chandra were , must be the feudal chiefs of MAHIPALA. His capital was MUDGAGIRI (i.e) MUNGYR in present BIHAR.
    வெறிமலர் தீர்த்தத்து எறிபுனல் கங்கையும் ( also captured ganges which was filled by flowers at its banks )
    In present days also, In Benaras or VARANASI or KASI, at the sacred bathing stations people prays the GANGES by spreading the flowers on it. Around that time also it’s a habit of the people while praying the sacred river.
    This line shows the western border of the empire of the king mahipala. Upto the year 1026 a.d. the benaras was in the hands of mahipala. In this year the kalachuri king GANGEYADEVA VIKRAMADHITHYA captured benaras from MAHIPALA ( from an inscription of GANGEYADEVA VIKRAMADHITHYA).
    One ARAB visitor says that in the year 1034 GANGEYADEVA VIKRAMADHITHYA was the king of this BENARAS.
    Upto this DESTNATION, we have covered the PURVA DESA. how?

    I Will com back with the details of theother destinations and ancient INDIA's Divisions.

    Thanking You

    sakthi sree
  • dear all,

      After covering PURVA DESA now i proceed furtherto the
    previously lef destinations.

    முதிர்படவல்லைமதுரமண்டலமும்( mathura which surounded by itstrees of ripe fruits
     scholars identifies this place as the
    present “ MATHURA ” in uttar pradesh. The chinese pilgrim yuan chwang describes
    this mathura as follows,
    Yuan-chuang describes the country of Mathura as being above
    5000 li in circuit, its capital being above twenty li in circuit.
    The soil, he says,was very fertile and agriculture is the chief business
    mango trees were grown in orchards at the homesteds
    of the people: there were two kinds of fruits , one is small and
    becoming yellow when ripe, and the other large and remaining
    green. The country produced also a fine striped cotton cloth
    and gold: its climate was hot: the manners and customs of the
    inhabitants were good.

    The rulers of this city, were belonged to theTOMARA dynasty of delhi.

    Now lets proceed to next destination,
    காமிடைவளைஇயநாமணைக்கொணையும்( namanaik konai which wassurrounded by its densed
    gardens )
    This place “ நாமணைக் கொணை ” has been written in some different letters,
    in South Indian Inscriptions it appears as “ namanaik konai ”,
    in “ the cholas ” KAN says as “ நாமணைக் கோணம் ”
    in the varalaaru.com, kalvettayvu serial part 7 records RJC’s 24th year
    meikeerthi, in this record it appears as “ நாமணைக் கொணை”
    I am unable to trace the 12th year meikeerthi of RJC. Ifeel that, this 12th
    year meikeerthi must contain the right letters of this place.

    If any one of us knows about the these letters of the 12th year meikeerthi, pls
    tell me the same. This will help meto proceed further in the right direction.

    I am also unable to trace the COPPER PLATE text which gives the ganges war

    Pls help me to get the above details to identify the right destinations. 
    I haveidentifiedall these threeplaces, I have to confirm with themeikeerthi
    letters and copper plate text.
    AlsoIhave tocalculate the time of the WAR of RJC to ensure what happened in
    that year.

    come back soon.

    thanking you

    sakthi sree.
  • dear all,

     Now I proceed to the next destination NAMANAIK KONAI. Further I
    have to write in tamil because ofsomeflexibility to dealwith theseletters.
    AlsoI dont know how toexplain in english.
    நாமணைக் கோணம் அல்லது நாமணைக் கொணை ஆகிய சொற்களுக்கு பொருள் அறிந்து கொள்ள
    முற்பட்டு அகராதிகளில் தேடிய போது திருப்தியான ஒரு பொருள் அறிய இயலவில்லை. பின்
    இந்த எழுத்துக்கள் “ நாமனைக் கோனை ” என்பதன் திரிபாக இருக்கக் கூடுமோ என்ற எண்ணம்
    தோன்றியது. சாசனம் அல்லது செப்பேடுகளைஎழுதியவர்களின்தவறாகவோ இருப்பின்
    எழுத்துக்கள் பிழையாக எழுதப்பட்டிருக்கக் கூடும்.

    நாமனைக் கோனையை சமஸ்கிருதத்தில் மொழிபெயர்க்க எண்ணி இந்த வார்த்தியின் தனித் தனி
    வார்த்தையாக இதை பிரித்து எழுதினேன்.

    நாமனைக் கோனை இந்த வார்த்தையைச் சொல்லும் போதே நான்கு என்ற வார்த்தையை
    சார்ந்துதான்துவங்குகிறது என்பதை உணர முடிந்தது.

      நான்கு + மனை + கோன் என்று பிரித்து எழுதினேன்.

      மனை என்ற சொல் அரண்மனை என்பதன் குறிப்பு வடிவமாகவே
    இருக்க வேண்டும்.

      கோன் என்ற சொல்லுக்கு காப்போன் என்று பொருள். இந்த
    வார்த்தையை கோனும் என்று எழுதியிருப்பின் ஒரு மனிதனைக் குறிக்கக் கூடும். கோனை
    என்று எழுதப்பட்டிருப்பதால் பொருளைக் குறிக்கிறது.

      அரண்மனையைக் காக்கும் பொருள் கோட்டைதானே.ஆகவே நான்கு
    + கோட்டை என்று எழுதினேன். இப்போது சமஸ்கிருதத்தில் மொழி பெயர்ப்பது சௌகரியமானது.

      நான்கு ===> சதுர்

     கோட்டை ====>துர்க்கம்

    “ சதுர்துர்க்கம் ” இந்தப் பெயரில்ஒரு இடத்தைப் பற்றிய தகவலை அறியதிரு.
    சாண்டில்யன் அவர்களின் “ மலை வாசல் ” புதினம்உதவி செய்தது.சாண்டில்யன் அவர்கள்
    மாளவதேசத்திலிருந்து மூலஸ்தான புரம் செல்லும் வழியில் “ நீலதுர்க்கம் ” என்ற ஒரு
    இடத்தைப் பற்றி குறிப்பிட்டிருந்தார். இதன் மூலம்துர்க்கம் என்றசொல்லிணைத்து
    பெயரிடும் வழக்கம் அப்பகுதிகளில் இருந்து வந்ததுதெரிய வந்தது.

    சதுர்துர்க்கத்தைப் பற்றிய நேரடியான குறிப்புகள் இல்லையெனினும் யுவான் சுவாங்கின்
    பயணக்குறிப்புகளில் ஒரு இடம் இந்தப்பெயரைச் சார்ந்து
    குறிப்பிடப்பட்டிருந்தது.யுவான் சுவாங் “ சது த்ரு” என்று இந்த இடத்தைக்
    குறிப்பிடுகிறார். தற்போதைய சட்லெஜ் ஆற்றின் கிழக்குக் கரையை ஒட்டி அமைந்திருந்த
    நகரம் என்றும் குறிப்பிடுகிறார். இந்த “ சது த்ரு ” நிச்சயமாக “ சதுர் துர்க்கம் ”
    என்பதன் திரிபாகவே இருக்க வேண்டும்.

    அல்பெருனியின் குறிப்புகளில் ” சதுரா ” என்ற இடத்தைப் பற்றி அறிய நேர்ந்தது.

    நாராயணபுரத்தை தலைநகராகக் கொண்டதேசம்அந்தத்தலைநகர்மாற்றார் ( மஹ்மூத் கஜ்னி?
    )படையெடுப்பால் அழிவுக்காட்பட்டபின் “ சதுரா ” என்ற இடத்தைதலை நகராக மாற்றிக்
    கொண்டதாக அல்பெருனி குறிப்பிட்டிருக்கிறார்.

    அறிஞர்கள் இந்த இடம் பஞ்ஜாப் மாநிலத்தில் “ சர்ஹிந்த் ” என்ற இடத்தைக்
    குறிப்பதாகக் கூறுகிறார்கள்.இந்த ” சர்ஹிந்த் ” முற்காலத்தில் “ படிண்டா ”
    என்ற அரசின்தலைநகராக விளங்கியதாகவும் அறிஞர்கள் குறிப்பிடுகின்றனர். இந்த “
    படிண்டா ”வின் கோட்டை அமைப்பைப் பற்றிய ஒரு சுவாரஸ்யமானதகவலை ஒரு புத்தகத்தில்
    படிக்க நேர்ந்தது.

    புத்தகத்தின் பெயர் " The life and times of sultan mahmud of gazna ". பக்கம் 201
    - ல், இப்படிக் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டிருந்தது.

    Bhatinda is situated, in the latitude 30deg 15min N. that is nearly the same as
    that of multan. This lies between Narayanpur and multan. The fort of bhatinda
    is famous for its strength and impregnability. There was also a dense jungle at
    The bhatinda was one of the four important forts, which were situated at the
    angles of nearly square figure. With a side of 40 miles long, thus forming a “
    quadrilateral ” in the path of an invader from the north west. The reduction of
    bhatinda was necessary because it guarded the passage into the rich ganges

    இதன் மூலம் நாம் “ நாமனைக் கோனை ” “ படிண்டா ” அரசைப் பற்றிய அல்லது ஹிந்துஷாஹி
    அல்லது ஹிந்து ஷா வம்சத்து கடைசி அரசரின் தந்தை ” திரிலோஹன பாலர் ” ஆட்சி செய்து
    கொண்டிருந்த பகுதிகளைக் கைப்பற்றியதைக் குறிப்பிடுகிறது என்பதை உணர்ந்து கொள்ளலாம்.

     வேறு எந்த ஒரு இடமும் பரத கண்டம் முழுமையும் தேடினாலும்
    நாமணைக்கோணையுடன் ஒத்துப் போகாது என்பது என்னுடையதாழ்மையான கருத்து. ஏனெனில்
    புவியமைப்பின் படியும்,மஹ்மூத் கஜினியின் படையெடுப்பின் வரிசையின்
    படியும்ஆறுகள்தடைஇல்லாத சமதளமான பகுதிகள் இந்த இடத்திலிருந்துதான்


    ராஜேந்திரரின் சாசனத்தில் ஒருசுவாரஸ்யம் எனக்குத் தென்பட்டது.

    “ UDAYAR Shree Rajendra Chozha thevar UTTHARA PAADHATHIL
    Boopathiyaarai JEYITHARULI YUTHOTHSAVA Vibavathaal GangaiParikiragam
    panniyarulina GANGAI KONDA CHOZHANENNUM thirunamathal ITHTHIRUMUTRATHIL vaithu
    Arulina UTHAMAAKKIRAM Gangai konda Chozhanil ”
      உடையார் ஸ்ரீராஜேந்திர சோழ தேவர் உத்தரபாதத்தில் பூபதியராய்
    ஜெயித்தருளி யுத்தோத்சவ வைபவத்தால் கங்கை பரிக்கிரயம் பண்ணியருளின கங்கை கொண்ட
    சோழனென்னும் திருநாமத்தால் இத்திருமுற்றத்தில் வைத்து அருளின உதமக்கிரம் கங்கை
    கொண்ட சோழனில்
    தமிழில் இதை எழுதிப் பார்த்த போது, இரண்டு வார்த்தைகள் பொருள் எனக்கு விளங்கவில்லை.
    தமிழ் மொழி அகராதிகளில் தேடிய அந்த இரண்டு வார்த்தைகளின் அர்த்தம் மிகுந்த
    ஆச்சர்யத்தை அளித்தன.

    1. பரிக்கிரயம் பொருள்

    2. உதமக்கிரம்( or உதக்கிரம்?) பொருள்

    இந்த இரண்டு வார்த்தைகளின் பொருளால்
    1. கங்கை கொண்ட சோழீஸ்வரம்
    2. கங்கை கொண்ட சோழீஸ்வரர்
    3. பூர்வ தேசமும் கங்கையும் கடாரமும் கொண்ட சோழன்
    4. கங்கை கொண்ட சோழன்
    5. எறிவலி கங்கை கொண்ட சோழன்
    6.கங்கை கொண்டான்

    இத்தனை பெருமைகளுக்குக் காரணமான கங்கை எங்கே இருக்கிறது என்ற குழப்பம் எனக்கு

    நாமணைக் கோணையைப் பற்றிய இந்த குறிப்புகள் ஏற்புடையதாக இருக்கும் என்று
    நம்புகிறேன். ஏதெனும் முரண்பாடுகள் தென்படின் எடுத்துச் சொல்லுங்கள்.

    சிறந்த அறிஞர் பெருமக்கள் நிறைந்திருக்கும் இந்தக் குழுமத்தில் இந்த குறிப்புகளைச்
    சொல்வதன் காரணம் யாரேனும் இந்த குறிப்புகளைக் கொண்டு மேலும் ஆழமான ஆராய்ச்சிகள்
    செய்து “ எம் உடையார் ஸ்ரீ ராஜேந்திர சோழ தேவர்” ரத்த வெறி பிடித்து தன்னுடைய
    ஆளுமையையும் திறனையும் காட்டுவதற்காக கங்கை படையெடுப்பை நிகழ்த்தவில்லை.
    கோயில்களை அழித்த, வாள்முனையில் மக்களை தனது வழிபாட்டு முறைகளை மாற்றச் செய்த “
    மஹ்மூத் கஜினியை” வென்று கங்கையை மீட்டு கடைசி ஹிந்து சாஹி அரசரை மீண்டும்
    ஆட்சியில் அமர்த்திய “ எம் உடையார் ஸ்ரீ ராஜேந்திர சோழ தேவரின் பெருமைகளை உலகறியச்
    செய்ய மாட்டீர்களா?”என்ற ஏக்கம் தான்.

    மஹ்மூத் கஜினியின் படையெடுப்புகளில் ஒரு படையெடுப்பைப் பற்றிய குறிப்புகளில் சில
    முரண்பாடுகள் இருக்கின்றன.

    மஹ்மூத் கஜினியைத் தாக்கியது சரி “ மஹிபாலரையும் இந்திரரதனையும்” தாக்கியதன் காரணம்
    என்ன என்று நீங்கள் கேட்கக்கூடும். “ palas of bengal " புத்தகத்தில் இதற்கு ஒரு
    சாசனம் உதவி செய்கிறது.

    இந்திர ரதனின் தாக்குதலுக்கு காரணம் அறிய
    அவருக்குப் பின் ஆட்சிபீடம் ஏறிய “ மஹாசிவகுப்தா மஹாராஜா சண்டிஹாரா யயாதி2” உதவி

    மாசுணி தேசத்தைப் பற்றி அறிந்து கொள்ள முற்பட்ட போது, கலியுகத்தின் தொடக்க கால
    அரசுகளைப் பற்றிய குறிப்புகள் உதவின.

    சக்தி ஸ்ரீ.
  • The Four forts in Chalokya chola kingdom was

    1) Gangai Konda Cholapuram, 2) Chidambaram,3) Hosur, and 4) thiruvannamalai

    This is four manai

    Shall we take like this?
  • dear sir,

      This namanaik konai has been mentioned after MATHURA in
    U.P., JAYASIMHA's kulenur inscriptionsimply mentions RJC rushed to help
    chandela vidhyadhar to prevent the attack from ghazni. so we have tosearch the
    routewhich goes towards GHAZNI in AFGANISTHAN. Also no possiblity to return
    back to these places from madura...

    I think, this JAYASIMHA is WESTERN chalukya king who mentions in very very
    simple words, instead of an ATTACK ofour RJC at GHAZNA.

    How i dare to say this,

    To Ensure, Ihave to compile the details of " MAASUNI DESAM " and the
    controversialdetails which were mentioned by the mohammaden poets(?) who are
    praisingmahmud ghazni.

    It will take some time to compile.

    I will come back soonwith the same.

    thanking you....

    sakthi sree
  • Dear
    Excellent plesae continue dear
  • thank you very much sir. I have to compile a lengthy details may take some time.
    sorry for the delay. I will come back soon.
  • Dear Sakthi Sree,

    You are doing a wonderful research. Thank u so much for giving us these detailed
    informations about our RJC battle.

    Thanks once again.
  • Hi Sakthi Sree,

    Your research on Rajendra's battle is worth a doctoral degree. Please continue and write a full summary of your research.
  • dear all,

      before proceed to MAASUNI DESA, lets have alook at the
    battles between vidhyadhara and ghazni. Its also in Tamil.


      வித்யாதரரின்ஆட்சியாண்டுகள் 1015லிருந்து 1036 என்று
    “chandelas of jejebhukti "புத்தகமும், 1019லிருந்து 1036 என்று “ early rulers
    of kajuraho " புத்தகமும் குறிப்ப்டுகின்றன.முறையான குறிப்புகள் எதுவும் இல்லை
    என்றும் அறிஞர்கள் சொல்கிறார்கள்.

      வித்யாதரருக்கும் கஜினிக்கும் இடையே நடைபெற்ற
    முதல்போரில் ( 1019 - 1020 ) வித்யாதரர்இரவோடு இரவாக
    போர்க்களத்தில்தன்னுடையயானைப்படையையும் பொருட்களையும் விட்டு விட்டுஓடி
    விட்டதாகவும்விட்டதாகவும், கஜினி அவற்றைக் கைப்பற்றிக் கொண்டுதிரும்பியதாகவும்,
    கஜினியின் புகழ் பாடும் புலவர்கள் கூறுவதாக சொல்கிறார்கள்.

    இந்தப் போரில் வித்யாதரரின் படை பலத்தைப் பற்றி 5 பேர் 5 எண்ணிக்கைகள்

    “chandelas of jejebhukti " புத்தகத்தில் பக்கம் 92ல் அந்த

    இரண்டாவது போர் 1022-1023ல் நடந்ததாக கூறுகின்றனர். இந்த இரண்டாவது போரினைப் பற்றிய
    விவரங்களுள்ஒரு புலவரது குறிப்புகள் நமக்கு மிகவும் முக்கியமானதொன்றாகும்.

    இந்தப் போரில், கஜினியின் நீண்ட முற்றுகைக்குப் பிறகு,வித்யாதரர் சமாதானத்திற்க்கு
    ஒப்புக்கொண்டு வருடா வருடம் கப்பம் செலுத்தவும், அதற்கு அச்சாரமாக தன்னுடைய 300
    யானைகளை அளித்ததாகவும், அவற்றுடன் கஜினியை மகிழ்விக்கும் வண்ணம் ஒருகவி எழுதிதன்
    தூதனிடம் கொடுத்து அனுப்பியதாகவும், அதைப் படித்து மனமுவந்த கஜினி, தான்
    கைப்பற்றிய15 கோட்டைகளை வித்யாதரரின் கட்டுப்பாட்டில் கொடுத்து விட்டுதன் பெரும்
    வெற்றியுடன்நாடுதிரும்பியதாக சொல்கின்றர்கள்.

    இந்த குறிப்புகளை ஆராயும் அறிஞர்கள், ராஜ புத்திரர்களில் ஒரு பிரிவினரான சந்தேல
    மன்னர் தன்னுடைய எதிரியொருவனை புகழ்ந்து கவி எழுதினார் என்பதுஏற்றுக்
    கொள்ளும்படியாக இல்லை என்றும், அது ராஜபுத்திரர்களின் “ CODE OF HONOUR " க்கு
    எதிரானது என்றும், கஜினி தன்னுடைய கோட்டைகளை 300 யானைகளுக்கு விற்றிருக்கக் கூடும்
    என்றும் கருதுகின்றனர்.

    ( ராஜபுத்திரர்களின் “ CODE OF HONOUR ” பற்றி அறிந்து கொள்ள திரு. சாண்டில்யன்
    அவர்களின் புதினங்கள் உதவும். எந்தெந்த புதினங்கள் என்பதை அறிய நமது குழுமத்தின் “
    திரு. சுந்தர் கிருஷ்ணன் ” அவர்களதுதொகுப்புகள்உதவி செய்யும். )

    இந்த இடத்தில் நாம் கவனிக்க வேண்டியஒன்று இருக்கிறது.

    அதாவது வித்யாதரரின் கட்டுப்பாட்டில் 15 கோட்டைகள் கஜினியிடமிருந்து வந்தன,

    கோட்டைகள் என்றால் வெறும் கோட்டைகள் அல்ல நாடுகள் அல்லது நகரங்கள் என்றே எடுத்துக்
    கொள்வதுதான் சரி.

    அந்தக் கோட்டைகள், கைப்பற்றப் பட்ட வரிசைப் படி, ஓரிரு இடங்கள் பற்றிய தெளிவான
    குறிப்புகள் இல்லை.

    இருப்பினும் அந்த கோட்டைகள் இவைகளாகத்தான் இருக்க வேண்டும்.


    1. காபூல் ( KABUL, 1stcapital of shahi kings)
    2. உதபந்தா ( UDABHANDHA, 2nd capital )
    3. சதுஸ்தான் ( SEHWAN )
    4. பாட்டியா ( BHATIYA )
    5. மூலஸ்தான புரம் ( MULTAN - governor appointed in 1010)
    6. பீம் நகர் ( NAGAR KOT in kangra valley )
    7. படிண்டா ( BATHINDA ?)
    8.நாராயண புரம்( NARAYANPUR )
    9. நந்தனா (NANADANA 3rdcapital- a governor appointed by
    ghazni in 1014 )

    10.  தானேஸ்வர் ( THANESAR )
    11.  லாஹுர் ( LAHORE  also served as a 4thCapital of SHAHI king and
    a governor appointed or shifted from nandana ?)
    12.  புலாந்த்ஷா ( BULANDSHAHR king converted to ISLAM)
    13.  கன்னோசி ( KANNAUJ King accepted ghazni as Over Lord )
    14.  கலிஞ்சார் (KALINJAR? )
    15.  மதுராபுரி (MADHURA - King and Queen suicided at the war end )

    கேள்விக் குறியிடப்பட்ட இடங்கள் தவிர மற்ற இடங்களை அறிஞர்கள் ஏற்றுக்கொள்கின்றனர்.

    Gwalior கோட்டையையும் கைப்பற்றியதாகவும் சொல்கிறார்கள் சிலர் மறுக்கிறார்கள்.

    15 கோட்டைகள் வித்யாதரர் கட்டுப்பாட்டில் வர வேண்டும் என்றால்?



    சக்தி ஸ்ரீ
  • HI Sakthi,

    Requesting you to map your hypothesis with a South Asian Map. :) You should be
    able to trace out a route with all this information.
  • dear sir,

     Thanks for your reminding about maps.
  • Dear Sakthisree
    Your research on Rajendra's path to Ganges is too good. Due to my ill
    health I was silent for a long time. Now I dont want to interrupt, but I think
    the following details may help you for the research.

    Kindly reconsider the explanation for Namanai Konam as it is a pure tamil
    word, not sanskrit. It says the four directions from the fort leads to other
    forts situated in four sides. Kindly consider Raichur Doab region and just have
    a look into it which suits the descriptions. Tiruvalangadu plates sanskrit
    portion 101 to 124 lines andKaranthai plates are also mentioning these places.
    SII Vol.2 will help you more.
    Moreover, the destination of Rajendra was very clear from its starting
    point. He ordered the army from Kanchi to go upto Ganges. The orders were
    handed over to Arayan Rajarajan, the chief of army who was at the banks of
    Tungabadra.(This is true as per many inscriptions. Sandilyan used this in his
    fiction, and he says our hero Vandiyatheven has taken this orders of Rajendra
    personally to Arayan Rajarajan ). The reasons for Rajendra's destination were
    started much earlier from the period of RRC due to his politics about Vengi. It
    starts from when Dhanaavarshan's sons Sakthi Varman and Vimaladhithan were
    refugees at Kalinga and then came to RRC and the incidents happened much prior
    to Rajendra took charge..The army's path was drawn by Rajendra according to
    these political situations and to save Vengi permanently to Cholas.
    Chakkarakotam is now called Chithirakoodam which is at Basthar district,
    on the banks of Indravati River, 22 miles from Jagadhalpur. Madura Mandalam,
    Nmanaikonam, Panchapalli are the parts of Masuni desam. There is Rajapuram
    plates which describes these places. Dhandaputhi is between Orissa and Bengal.
    Bengal was called Lada desam. Please remember the path of return ofthe army from
    bengal. The final battles were with Indra Radhan of Ottara Desam(orissa)
    .Dharumapalan of Dhandaputhi, Ranasuran of South Lada desam, Mahipalan of North
    Lada desam and finally the army reached Ganges.
    Therewas one Govinda Chandran, a subordinate of Mahipalan who renewed
    the battle but was defeated and ran into forests. Rajendra went upto Godhavari
    to receive Arayan Rajarajan, captured and established Vengi, then only held the
    marriage of his daughter Ammangai with Kulothunga's father.

    One of the chieftain, Samandasenanof Rajendra's army stayed at bengal and
    later started the Sena dynasty in bengal.
    I hope these details will make some help you for the research. If these
    details are not needed, kindly drop them and continue. My wishes.
  • dear nanda sir,

      thank you very much for reminding about the Map.
    I will try to locate the road which goes from MATHURA to MAASUNI DESA in GOOGLE
    MAP and attach itin thenext post.

     venkateswaran sir, presently I am working in
    Singapore, I am collecting all these details on my own interest to track

    dear all,

    Now let us proceedfurther,

    Before all the other details, we have to confirm the time at when RJC went
    to GAZNI..

    Its also in tamil.
     நாம் முதலில், கஜினி வழக்கமாக படையெடுத்து வரும்
    காலத்தை அறிந்து கொள்வது அவசியம். ஏனெனில் அந்த கால வரையரையின்படி வித்யாதரருக்கும்
    கஜினிக்கும் இடையே நடந்தாக கூறப்படும் போர் சந்தேகத்துக்கிடமாயுள்ளது.
    கஜினி ஒவ்வொரு ஆங்கில வருடத்தின் கடைசி 4 மாதங்களிலும் அடுத்த வருடத்தின் முதல் 3
    அல்லது 5 மாதங்கள் வரை தான் தன்னுடைய படையெடுப்புகளை நடத்தியதாகத்தான் அறிஞர்கள்
    குறிப்பிடுகின்றனர்.( அநேக படையெடுப்புகள் )
    மஹ்மூத் கஜினியின் புகழ் பாடும் புலவர்கள் மற்றும் வரலாற்றாளர்களின் அல்லது
    பயணிகள் ஆகியோரது குறிப்புகளில் கூறப்படும் பருவ காலங்களைக் கொண்டும், இஸ்லாமிய
    ஆண்டுகளைக் கொண்டும் கணக்கிட்டுக் கூறுகிறார்கள்.
    குறிப்பிட்ட இந்தப் படையெடுப்பு நடந்த ஆண்டு என்று சொல்லப்படுவது 1022 லிருந்து
    1023 வரை. அதாவது 1022 செப்டம்பர் முதல் 1023 மார்ச் அல்லது மே.
    ஜெயசிம்மரின் சாசனக் குறிப்பின்படி ராஜேந்திரர் வித்யாதரருக்கு உதவச் சென்றார்
    என்றால் 1019 – 1020 வரை நடந்த போருக்கு சென்றிருக்க இயலாது. ஏனெனில் இந்த
    படையெடுப்பு நடந்த அதே ஆண்டில் தான் ஜெயசிம்மருடனான முசங்கிப் போர் நடந்துள்ளது.
    பார்க்க :1. நமது குழுமத்தின் திரு.வீரராஜேந்திரா அவர்களது ஆராய்ச்சிக்
    2. வரலாறு.காம்கல்வெட்டாய்வு தொடர், ராஜேந்திரரின் மெய்க்கீர்த்தியில் ஏற்பட்ட
    மாற்றங்களை பதிவு செய்திருக்கிறது.

    கஜினி 1020ல் நாடு திரும்பிய இரண்டு ஆண்டுகளுக்குப் பிறகுதான் அடுத்த படையெடுப்பை
    நடத்தியதாகத்தான் பெரும்பான்மையான அறிஞர்கள் சொல்கிறார்கள். ஆகவே 1022 -1023ல்
    என்பது ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளக்கூடியது.

    திரு. நீலகண்ட சாஸ்திரியார் “ சோழர்கள் ” புத்தகத்தில், ராஜேந்திரர் தனது
    கங்கைப்போர் முடித்து, சோழ தேசம் திரும்பும் போது, வேங்கி மன்னர் ராஜராஜ நரேந்திரர்
    முடிசூட்டு விழாவும், அவர் மற்றும் அம்மங்காதேவி திருமணமும் நடந்ததாக சாசனங்களும்
    செப்பேடுகளும் தெரிவிப்பதாக சொல்கிறார்.

    இந்த நிகழ்வுகள் பற்றிக் குறிப்பிடப்படும் தேதி
    கி.பி. 1022 ஆகஸ்ட் 16.
    அதாவது,நம் உடையார் ஸ்ரீ ராஜேந்திர சோழ தேவரால் கைப்பற்றப்பட்ட 15 கோட்டைகள் தான்,
    கஜினியால் பரிசாகக் கொடுக்கப்பட்டதாகக் கூறப்படும் கதையின் மூல காரணம்.
    கஜினியின்தோல்வியை மறைக்க எழுப்பப்பட்ட சொற்சுவர் தான் இந்த கஜினியின் 1022 - 23

    இப்போதுதான் நாம் “ மாசுணிதேசம் ” எங்கு இருக்கிறது என்றுதேட வேண்டியதுமிக மிக


    இந்து சாஹி வம்சத்து அரசர் திரிலோஹன பாலர், அண்டை நாட்டு அரசருடனான போரில் அல்லது

    உட்பகைவனாலோ கொல்லப்பட்ட பிறகு( ஆண்டு 1021 ),

    அவரது புதல்வர் “ பீமபாலர் ” ( இளவரசர் ) மாளவதேசத்து மன்னரிடம் அடைக்கலம்

    இவர் ( 4 அல்லது ) 5 ஆண்டுகள்ஆட்சி செய்ததாகவும் (may be
    atLahorefort)அல்பெருனி குறிப்பிடுவதாக சாஹி

    வம்சத்து அரசர்கள் பற்றிகுறிப்பிடும் அறிஞர்கள் கூறுகின்றனர்.

    அந்த மாளவதேசத்து மன்னரின் பெயர் “ போஜராஜர் ”ஆட்சியாண்டுகள் கி.பி 1010 முதல்
    1055 வரை.


    கஜினியின் சோமநாதபுரப் படையெடுப்பின் போதுதான்மேற்கு பஞ்சாப் வரையிலான பகுதிகள்
    அவரது நாட்டோடு

    இணைக்கப்பட்டதாகவும் கூறுகின்றனர்.

    ராஜேந்திரரின் மெய்க்கீர்த்தியில் மாசுணிதேசத்திற்க்குப் பின் கூறப்படும் கோசல
    தேசத்து இந்திரரதரின் ஆட்சியாண்டுகள் பற்றி “ cultural history of south kosala”
    புத்தகத்தில் ஒரு குறிப்பு இருக்கிறது.
    அந்த ஆண்டுகள் கி.பி 1016முதல் 1023வரை.



    சக்தி ஸ்ரீ
  • Dear Sakthi Sree Sir,

    The Tamil usage of "Kirayam" in legal documents means to give/transfer. If any property is transfered for a consideration it is called as virkirayam". The person executing the document is called as "virkirayadharar".The opposite for this word virkirayam "parikrayam" .we can safely assume that the word parikrayam means to bring or to take.Hence to my knowledge the word "Parikraham seydu" to bring ganges to chola kingdom.

    Similarly the word "uththamakramam" should be deciphered in the following way.

    Kiramam means ritual or prescribed activities.In our usage any kiramam relating to departed souls is uththama kiramam. Even now in our obsequies initimation the word uthamakiyai is used in this sense.Hence can we assume RJC has done some ofthis ritual in the court yard of Gangai Konda Choleeswaram.

    All these assumptions are a logical thought and our friends in the group may help you to arrive at the correct conclusions.
  • dear all,

      finally, I have compiled the details of " MAASUNI DESA "
    upto myunderstanding capabilty from the books which are accessible and the
    details acceptablefor me. its as follows, in Tamil.

    பாசுடைப் பழனமாசுணிதேசமும்( masuni desam which is an oldest one )

    “ சோழர்கள் ” புத்தகத்தில் நீலகண்ட சாஸ்திரியார் அவர்கள் இந்த இடத்தை வயல்வெளிகள்
    சூழ்ந்த நாகர்கள் தேசம் என்று குறிப்பிட்டிருந்தார். ஆனால் சக்கரக் கோட்டத்தைச்
    சுற்றியிருந்த பகுதிகளைத் தான் இது குறிக்கக் கூடும் என்று தான் அவர் குறிப்பிடவும்

    நான் சில குறிப்புகளை படிக்க நேர்ந்த போது, மதுராபுரியிலிருந்து மீண்டும் திரும்பி
    சக்கரக்கோட்டத்தை நோக்கி வருவது என்பது சற்று நெருடலை ஏற்படுத்தியது.

    “ the ancient geography of india ” புத்தகத்தில் அலெக்ஸாண்டர் கைப்பற்றிய
    பகுதிகளில் “ மாசணி ” ( massani ) என்றழைக்கப்பட்ட பகுதி, தற்போது சிந்து
    என்றழைக்கப்படும் நதி பாயும் பகுதிகளில் அமைந்திருப்பதாக கூறப்பட்டிருந்தது. (
    வரைபடம்இணைத்திருக்கிறேன் )
    பாசுடை ( பாசி + உடைய ) பழன ( பழமையான ) என்ற அர்த்தத்தில் எழுதப்பட்டிருக்கக்
    கூடுமோ ( அதாவது மிகப் பழமையான தேசம் ) என்கிற எண்ணம் தோன்றியது.

    இந்த மாசுணி என்கிற வார்த்தை  மாசனி என்கிற வார்த்தையின் திரிபாக இருக்கக் கூடுமோ
    என்கிற எண்ணமும் தோன்றியது.

    திரு.சாண்டில்யன் அவர்களின் மலைவாசல் புதினத்தில் சம்பல் ஆற்றின் மேற்கே நாகர்கள்
    தேசம் இருந்ததாக கூறப்பட்டிருந்தது.

    இந்தக் குறிப்பைக் கண்ட பின் “ பாசுடைப் பழன ” என்றால் என்னதான் அர்த்தம் என்று
    அகராதிகளில் தேடினேன்.
    “ பாசு என்றால் ஆறு ” என்ற பொருளும் “ பழனம் என்றால் மருத நிலம் ” என்ற பொருளும்
    அதாவது, ஆறுடைய மருதநிலம், அதாவது ஆற்றால் வளப்படுத்தப்படும் வயலும் வயல் சார்ந்த

    நாகர்கள் தேசம் பற்றிய குறிப்புகள்,
    புத்தகம் “ The origin of Saivism and its history in the Tamil land ”

    புத்தகம் “ Sun and the Serpent ”

    மகாபாரதத்து அபிமன்யுவின் புதல்வர் பரீஷித் மஹாராஜா தட்ச சீலத்து
    (taxila ) நாக வம்சத்து அரசருடன் போரில் ஈடுபட்டிருந்ததாகவும், அவர்
    புதல்வர் ஜனமேஜெயரும் தொடர்ந்ததாகவும் குறிப்பிடுகின்றன.
    யுவான் சுவாங் அவர்கள் புத்தர், காபூலைச் சேர்ந்த கோபாலா என்கிற
    நாக வம்சத்து அரசரை மதம் மாற்றியதாக குறிப்பிடுவதாக கூறுகின்றன.

    மேலும் பல புத்தகங்கள்,
      காபூலைச் சுற்றியுள்ள பகுதிகளிலும், சிந்து சமவெளிப்
    பகுதிகளிலும், காங்க்ரா ( kangra ) மற்றும் காஷ்மீர் வரையிலும் நாகர்கள் பரவி
    இருந்ததாகவும் குறிப்பிடுகின்றன.
    அதாவது, முற்காலத்தில் காந்தார தேசத்தில் நாகர்கள் இருந்தது தெளிவாகிறது.
    ( இந்த காந்தார தேசம் தான் “ மாசுணி ” என்கிற பெயரில் குறிப்பிடப்பட்டிருக்க
    வேண்டும் என்று தோன்றுகிறது. )

    காபூல் என்கிற பெயரில் ஒரு ஆறு சிந்து நதியுடன் இணைகிறது என்றும்
    குறிப்புகள் இருக்கின்றன.
      காபூல் அருங்காட்சியகத்தில் நாக வம்சத்துஅரசர் ( may be
    the naga king ELAPATRA )ஒருவரது சிலை இருப்பதாகஇணையதளங்களில் படிக்க
    நேர்ந்தது.( படம் இணைத்திருக்கிறேன் )

    தேசம் என்று தன்னுடைய வெற்றியைக் குறிப்பிட வேண்டுமெனில் அதன் தலைநகர்
    கைப்பற்றப்பட்டிருக்க வேண்டும் இல்லையெனில் தனித்தனி மண்டலங்களைத் தான் குறிப்பிட

    மதுராவிலிருந்து காபூல் வரையிலான இந்த பதினைந்து கோட்டைகளை கைப்பற்ற
    வேண்டுமானால், மதுராவிலிருந்து கஜ்னா வரை தன் கட்டுப்பாட்டில் வைத்திருந்த “
    சுல்தான் மஹ்மூத் யாமின் அல்தௌலா ” ( i.e ) “ SULTAN MAHMUD, THE RIGHT HAND OF THE
    KINGDOM OF GAZNA ” நம் ராஜேந்திரரால் தோற்கடிக்கப்பட்டிருக்கிறார்.

    அந்தப் போர் நடைபெற்ற காலம் கி.பி. 1021 செப்டம்பர் முதல் 1022 மே வரை.

    கி.பி 1021ம் ஆண்டிற்கு முன்பு சென்றிருக்க சாத்தியம் இல்லை.திரிலோஹன பாலரின்
    மரணத்திற்க்குப் பின்தான் சென்றிருக்கக் கூடும். அவர் எந்த
    மாதத்தில்கொல்லப்பட்டார் என்பது பற்றிய குறிப்புகள் இல்லை.

    ஆற்றைக் கடக்கக் கூடிய சாத்தியக் கூறுகள் கொண்டுதான் இதை முடிவு செய்ய முடியும்.

    ஏனெனில் இந்த செப்டம்பர் முதல் மே வரையிலான காலத்திற்க்குள்தான் கங்கையைக்
    கடக்க முடியும். மற்ற நேரங்களில் கங்கையின் பிரவாகம் பொங்கிப்பெருகி கரை
    கடந்தோடும் என்றும் குறிப்பிடுகின்றனர். கஜினியும் அதைத்தான் செய்திருக்கிறார்.
    ராஜேந்திரருடன் கூட்டணி அமைத்திருந்த “ போஜராஜர் ” துருஷ்கர்களுடனான போரின்
    வெற்றியை தன்னுடைய உதய்பூர் பிரசஸ்தியிலும், உஜ்ஜைனி மஹாகாளி ஆலயத்து சாசனத்திலும்
    பதிவு செய்திருப்பதாக அறிஞர்கள் கூறுகின்றனர்.

    இந்த துருஷ்கர்கள் காந்தார தேசத்தைச் சேர்ந்தவர்கள்தான் என்று அறிஞர்கள்

    மாசுணி தேசத்தைப் பற்றிய குறிப்புகள் ஏற்புடையதாகவே இருக்கும் என்றே நம்புகிறேன்.

    கங்கைப் போர் முடிந்து, “ 1022ஆகஸ்ட் 16 ” க்குள்ராஜேந்திரர்திரும்பிவிட்டதாக
    கூறப்படும்குறிப்பு இந்திர ரதரின்ஆட்சியாண்டுகளுடன் ( 1016 - 1023

    அதாவது, இந்திர ரதரும், மஹிபாலரும் கங்கைப் போரில் அல்ல பூர்வ தேசத்துப் போரில்
    தான் தோற்கடிக்கப்பட்டிருக்கின்றனர்.

    அதனால்தான், “ பூர்வதேசமும் கங்கையும் கடாரமும் கொண்ட அய்யன் ” என்று தனித் தனியான
    பெயர்களுடனான விருதுப் பெயர் சூட்டப்பட்டுள்ளது.



  • dear all,

      I think Imissed to give some details about MathurA. rjc'S
    OPPONENT at mathura decides the further poceedings towhom he fights... After a
    long search i got the Book "The KITAB -i- Yamini written byAL-UTBI, personal
    secratary of MAHMUD OF GHAZNA ".

    In this book Utbi explains Mahmud's attack on Mathura and his hold at mathura.
    I have attached the these details in an MS word document. Pls have a look at it.
    then continue from here.

    At this place we have to consider the other Two details given By RJC.

    The first one one is Purva desa, as per the details i have given before, this
    region is Mentioned after MAASUNI DESA. so we have to consider the next detail
    given by RJC.

    the next one is,

      the inscription which deals with " UTTARA PATHA ". in this
    inscription, heclearly mentions that there was a war between him and the kings

    so,we have to calculate that, the 3 other destinations lies in uttara patha.

    where is this UTTARA PATHA....

    Our Virarajendra sir's words about this region,

    1. Dharmasastra of Manu states Uttarapatham lies to the west of the place where
    river Sarawathi disappears.

    2. Great Indian Epic Mahabharata states ".....the Yavanas, Kambojas, Gandaras,
    Kiratas, and Barbarahs who were born in Uttarapatham......", which were all
    situated in north-western India.

    3. Nepali Manuscripts says "....Purushapuram territory in Uttarapatham.....".
    Purushapura is the present Peshawar in the upper Sind valley region of present
    Pakistan. 4. Kaviya Mimansa states the Uttarapatha lay on the western side of

    Evene there are number of the details about this Uttara patha. there is a book
    " Uttara patha " is also available.

    I'm also use the above details about uttara patha. The " Kavya mimansa " is
    said to be, a very close time article with RJC.

    so lets see where is this PIRUTHUDAKA...

    In the book " The Ancient Geography of INDIA, alexander cunninghamidentifies
    that, this Piruthudaka is the modernPEHOA situated on the southern bank of
    saraswati, 14 miles west to theThanesar in HARYANA.

      This statement clearly
    shows that The other DESTINATIONs located west to theTHANESAR fort which is
    one of the 15 forts occupied by Mahmud of Ghazna.

    with in this region, There is a place which matches to the detail given by our "
    Vishwak senan " sir,

    "the explanation for Namanai Konam as it is a pure tamil word, not sanskrit. It
    says the four directions from the fort leads to otherforts situated in four

    related to these words, just now I got a Hint ( from the Journal of The ASIATIC
    Society )related to these words, which corresponds to the3rd capital of the
    SHAHI kings. ( which i already mentioned in the previous posts )
    I'm trying to get that journal. After i get the same i will give the exact
    destination position.

    Thanking You....

    sakthi sree.
  • Dear Sri Sri,

    The present SEHWAN is earlier called as SADUSTAN and it is situated in the banks of river Sindh. There is a reference of this place with Gazni's invation and this may be the Namanikonai referred to in RJC's meikeerthi.
    Please open the book and in page 607 refrence is available
    Link; http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8897

    Sukumar V
  • dear sir,

      thanks for your nice explanations about Parikrayam and

     This " sadustan " is the first place, which I doubted.

     but its location is below Panjappalli which is multan,
    distance is 682 km by road.
     the hindu shahi dynasty's eastern border is said to be the "
    sir hind " in Punjab, india....

     The 3rd capital of TheSHAHI kingdom NANDANA, which was
    established byANANDAPALA.....

      Nandana in SALT range in NORTHERN Punjab in Pakistan from
    here theyrule upto Sirhind...
      In the Ghazni's invasions, Nandanawas conquered in the year
    1012, the next invasion is Thanesar in haryana in the year 1014... this also
    confirms that upto present punjab, in india, shahis had their hold..... 

      A hint from a Journal of the ASIATIC society.. Volume11, "
    Nandana - the name of the Four towns..... " which means Four forts ,which
    suits with the details given by our vishwak Senan sir...

     I think,  the location of Nandana is the Place which is
    said to be the entrance of theplains fortheInvaders from the West (
    Alexanderalso).. So its quiet considerable with Namanik konam or namanaik
    konai..... ( further I leave it to the Researchers, because i am unable to trace
    the journal ")

      The Last shahi king " bhima pala " was ruled from here for
    4 or 5 years..... (alberuni's words about his rule, scholars places him at
    nandana )

    So , I sugest that,,

      Namanik konam is " NANDANA in salt range " which is
    consideraleby its location as the entrance....

      Panjappalli is " Multan "capital of arab kingdom, in

      Maasuni Desam is whole Pakistan and parts of Afganistan
    around Kabul....


     இந்த வார்த்தைகளைச் சொல்வதாவேண்டாமா என்றநீண்ட யோசனைக்குப் பின்

     சோழதேசத்தின் அனைத்துப் பதிவுகளிலும், சாசனங்களிலும், விருதுப்
    பெயர்களிலும் இடம் பெறும் கங்கை

    “ கங்கோத்ரியில்துவங்கி வங்கக் கடலில் கலக்கும் கங்கை அல்ல”

    “ க்ளேசியரில்துவங்கி சிந்துதேசம் வழியாகச் சென்று அரபிக்கடலில் கலக்கும்கங்கை
    நதியே ”

    உத்தர பாத சாசனம், பஞ்சப்பள்ளி பற்றிய என்னுடைய குறிப்புகளை மீண்டும்ஒரு
    முறைபடித்து விட்டு இது சரிதான் என்றால் ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளுங்கள்...

    ஏற்றுக் கொள்ள இயலாவிடில் வரலாற்று உலகில்முதன் முதலாக அடியெடுத்து
    வைத்திருக்கும் குழந்தையொன்றின் மழலை மொழி என்று நினைத்து மன்னித்து மறந்து


    சக்தி ஸ்ரீ
  • Dear Sakthi Sree
    Wonderfulresearch you made. But I humbly request you not to let down our
    Rajendra in Punjab, or Pakistan borders. Please find a way to bring him back to
    Vengi. His daughter Ammangai is waiting for marriage. In Bengal, Mahipalan,
    Govinda chandran, Ranasuran, Ottaradattanand others are also waiting for the
    battle. There may be some routes if you further search. Now only I understand
    that K.A.Neelakanda Sastri, Appadurai Pillai, Gopinatha Rao, Banerjee, Fleetand
    other old men went wrong. It is interesting. Please continue.
  • dear all,

    According to the 15 Forts, I divide the battle road from Mathura to Ghazni... in
    two directions... and combines in bathinda, moves to ghazni...

    1st Route :

    sgar to bathinda in punjab, in India...

    Map 1:

    A. Bastar in Chattisgar which is SAKKARAK KOTTAM
    B. DHARA the capital of Bhojaraja ( combined army moves to )
    C. Mathura in uttar pradesh which is MATHURA MANDALAM
    D. NARAYANPUR Fort near Alwar in Rajasthan
    E. Bathinda Fort in Punjab in India

    2nd Route :

    Map 2 :

    A. Mathura in uttar pradesh which is MATHURA MANDALAM
    B. Kalinjar fort in Banda district in uttar pradesh
    C. Kannauj Fort in Uttar pradesh
    D. Buland shahr in Uttar pradesh
    E. Thanesar in Haryana
    F. Kangra in Himachal Pradesh ( Nagarkot fort )
    G. Nandana or Nandna in Salt range, Punajab in Pakistan
    H. Bathinda Fort in Punjab in India ( Both army combines here )

    Map 3:

    A. Bathinda Fort in Punjab in India
    B. Multan in Pakistan ( which is panjappalli )
    C. Sehwan Fort in pakistan ( To reach this place and the next places Ganges to
    be Crossed )
    D. Hund near attock in Pakistan...

    note this 2
    places in a separate map.... Map 4.....

    I Neglect Lahore which the scholars disputes That Lahore near kabul...

    Also neglect Bhatiya Fort which is in between multan and sehwan... because
    scholars dispute between these two forts ( another one is bathinda ), I consider
    bathinda is suitable to enter to Naraynpur from west... Bhatiya can be
    captured, after multan before sehwan... so I didn’t notify this fort…

    Kalinjar Fort is under Doubt.. but I notify the same in the Map 2... Vidhyadhar
    had his hold in later days also...

    Dear vishwak senan sir,

    n BY
    crossing the Ganges which is now called as Indus, back to Dhara and reaches to
    Vengi is Possible.

    There Asscension of Raja raja narendra and his Marriage with ammanga devi takes

    Then Rjc moves towards Purva desa...

    Already i have given those details about from Adi nagar to BENARAS.

    I have to give details about, the reason for the attack of Indra ratha,
    Mahipala and alsoKadaram war.. Further posts I will give those details...

    Dear Kathie,

    Nandana is the Right letters, Nandna is written by thebritish scholars.
    thanks for your information.
    I think “ Nandana ” is a sanscrit term which means “ Indra ” also means “
    son ”.

    I Request PSVP captains, to take the Responsibility to announceabout this war
    between RJC and Ghazni, After for a deep research in this Angle by the Legends.
    ( If my details are acceptable, arrange for a legend's research in this angle )

    It will make me happy for my, nearly One year work in the collection of these
    Thanking you

    Sakthi sree
  • maasunidesam means bhawanipattana area masuni means snake madura mandalam is kalinjar where virama peruveerar group defeated gajini and one portion of the war front called as titled chails chase gajini troup up to himalaya place presently called chail .

    still chails are the zamindhar family at purulia . i met dr ranan chail during 2007 october. please check our old mails.

    danda bhukthi is at mayurbanj region still at keonjhar temple called murugu mahadeva is there.

    odra desam is from rushikalya to baitharani river.

    adinagar is in angul district called as talamul and purana garh is on the mahanadhi banks .

    particularly during the war time kalinga was having alliance with cholas

    will brief in future
  • Dear all,

    I have collected all the basic details from the following sites :

    1. Our PSVP’s earlier discussions by legendary members
    2. Varalaaru.com
    3. Project madurai
    4. Poetryinstone.in
    5. Southindianinscriptions
    6. Banglapedia
    7. Kosal. Org
    8. Orissagovernmentportal
    9. TDPC of punjab
    11.Our Virarajendra sir’s research extract from Mayyam Hub.

    And some other sites helped me a lot.....

    I have collected all the other details from the following books even a hint

    1. Epigraphia indica vol IX
    2. Thiruvalanchuzi Shedrabalar kovil – a research by our SPS sir
    3. Valanchuzi vanar by R.Kalaikkovan and M.Nalini
    4. Alberuni’s INDIA vol 1& 2
    5. The KITAB – I - YAMINI
    6. The ancient geography of india
    7. Yuvan chwang travels in india
    8. Studies in the geography of ancient and medieval india
    9. Political history of India
    10.The history of medieval hindu india
    11.Personal and geographical names in the inscriptions of guptas
    12.Palas of bengal
    13.The history and culture of the palas
    15.Dhanapala and his times
    16.Malwa through the ages
    18.Ancient india-s
    19.Chandelas of jejabhukti
    20.Early rulers of kajuraho
    21.The cultural profile of south kosala
    22.The origin of saivism
    23.The history of medieval vaishnavism
    24.Medieval orissa a socio economic study
    25.History and historians in ancient india
    26.Constitutional and political devolopement in india
    27.Ancient indian history and civilization
    28.Prof.Raychaudri as a historian
    29.Tamilian antiquary
    30.Cultural history of india
    31.A history of india
    32.Education in ancient india
    33.Dimensions and human cultures in central india
    34.Tribal roots of hinduism
    35.Studies in the religious life of ancient and medieval india
    36.Haryana present and past
    37.Geography from ancient indian coins
    38.Inscriptions of saraphuriyas, panduvamsins and somavamsins
    39.Descriptive lists of inscriptions in the central provinces and berar
    40.Encyclopaedic historiography of the muslim world
    41.Urban devolopment in india – since pre historic times
    42.Ancient indian education : Brahmanical and budhdhist
    43.Encyclopedia in higher education ; pre independence period
    44.Indian epigraphy
    45.Jornal of the asiatic society of bengal
    46.Chronicle of the early janjuas
    47.Early aryans to swaraj
    48.The life and times of sultan mahmud of ghazna
    49.Heroic hindu resistance to muslim invaders
    50.India and central asia : classical to contemporary periods
    51.Al-hind the slave kings and the islamic conquest
    52.Al-hind early medieval india and the expansion of islam
    53.History of delhi sultante
    54.Essays on idnian antiquities
    55.Kalhana’s rajatarangini ; a chronicle of the kings of kashmir
    56.Dictionary of pali proper names
    57.Researches into the history and civilization of the kiratas
    58.Advanced study in the history of medieval india
    59.Encyclopaedia of untouchables

    And some other books...

    After for a long journey on the battle road of RAJRENDRA’s GANGES war, I have
    reached the following destinations……………….

    1. Chakra kottam – Bastar region in chattisgargh, india
    2. Mathura mandalam- Mathura in U.P, india
    3. Namnaik konai - Nandana in punjab, pakistan ( shahi kingdom )
    4. Panjappalli - Multan in sindh, Pakistan ( Arab kingdom
    5. Masuni desam - Naga land which comprised parts of
    afganisthan, Whole pakistan, punjab, haryana, himachal pradesh and borders of
    kashmir. ( May consider upto mathura or U.P also. some books shows the presence
    of NAGAS in mathura region )

    FOR a clear conclusion pls refer the above saidBOOKS.
    I think all the details I have given are enough, if I proceed further All of you
    could feel that " I’m imagining too much… " that’s why I stops it at this

    My sincere thanks to,

    Our PSVP captains
    Our SPS sir
    Our VIJAY sir

    And all the one who listened my words and all the one who interacted with it...

    My special thanks to “ PONNIYIN PUTHALVAR ” who made me to know a bit of indian

    Thanking you all,

    Sakthi sree 

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  • Hi Sakthi,
    First of all, many congratulations on such a research. I have not started with
    Cholas history yet hence not in position to say anything or provide any kind of
    valuable feedback. Once I start with Cholas, I will surely go through all your
    mails and will revert back to you for further clarifications.
    Only one thing I want to know, how much time was taken by Rajendra in this
    expedition? As you see there is a good distance between Tamilnadu and UP and I
    am very much interested to know how much time they took to reach there, if ever
    this happened. I am saying 'if ever it happened' as I have not gone through this
    study, so please pardon my ignorance here.
    I am from Mathura, however never heard of such an expedition or contact with
    Cholas. This is what aroused my curiosity as being a history enthusiast I am not
    aware about my native. If this event did happen, then surely its a shame on me
    that I did not have this knowledge, perhaps need to devote more time now, saying
    in light manner :).
  • Dear Sakthisree
    Really I appreciate your hardwork and research made. This kind of
    sparkling enthusiasm lies only with great historians and researchers. But this
    title "Rajendra's battle road to Ganges' was done by few historians in the past.
    One of them was Mr. Venkiah and Mr.S.K.Iyengar. S.K.Iyengar has written a book
    with title "Gangai Konda Cholan" and narrates the path intercepting Gajini's
    raids. But later the strength of his evidances were lost., because of Gajini's
    raids were17 timesfrom 1012 and ended just before Rajendra's expedition. No
    evidances are available for some northern kings requested for help, or any hint
    in Rajendra's whole inscriptions and meykeerthis. If it was so, our poets wont
    let it go unseeingly and definitely written something on it.
    Anyhow, it is the way that a historian might think.
    The references you mention in the list confuse a little.The Tiruvalangadu
    plates and Karanthai plates, Meikeerthi of Rajendra and his 29th year
    inscription on the walls of Tanjore Temple south wall of central shrine first
    and second tiers, Tirumalai inscriptions are giving a clear picture of the path
    to Ganges.
    If you lead from these basic informations your destination will be reached
    without any troubles.

    Once it was stated that Kadaram is in the Ramnad district by Prof. Hultzch
    and the statement is still in the inscriptions page even now. We may get
    confused by some materials and have to clear us first to proceed.
    Your derivation upto Chakkara Kottam and Madhura mandalam made me to look
    into the references again and seems acceptable. But the next , about
    Panchapalli, Namanaikonam, and Masuni desam seems not clear to me. In KAN's map
    of India 1200 A.D. and explanations, the Sakkarakottam is mentioned clearly.
    Try to get some inscripional or monumental, or plates mentioning Rajendra
    with evidances of his path to the extreme north west. Nowhere in our records is
    mentioned about Rajendra's northwest path, and that is the reason for my doubt.
    Kindly try to clear me, if you have time to spare.
  • dear sir,

      Thank you very muchsir. Ihave tocompile some details,
    one with another to sure, How Icame to this conclusion, need some time.it will
    give you a clear view.

    thanking you

    sakthi sree
  • please refer history of orissa by panikkarai

    orissa history congress journals
    utkal journals
    orissa museum journals
    orissa district cultural volumes
    patna journals
    bengal journals

    when u r working on chola history vaidumba ,kalinga,somavamsi, palas chinda nagas south kosala kingdom also is involved.

    u can talk to me in this regards.

    cholas not did hit and run

    s.balasubramani B+ve

    99402 40847
  • thanks for ur swift msg

    eastern coastal harbours and trading highways and religous mutts r also should into account.
    my experience in that region is more then 20 years .there is aplace called cholanor still near at bastar.

    chi chola still exist on chattisgarh border
  • " ... As you see there is a good distance between Tamilnadu and UP and I am very much interested to know how much time they took to reach there, if ever this happened. I am saying 'if ever it happened' as I have not gone through this study, so please pardon my ignorance here... "

    Dear Saurab,

    In the past 50 years ATLEAST enough is discussed re Rajaraja - thanks to Kalki - through his PS Fiction (becos of which we are assembled here).. and in the past 20 years - so much works have come out on Rajaraja.

    Likewise lot of details are made availble re Mahendra I, Narasimha I and Rajasimha too - of late.

    RAJENDRA did not get his DESERVING SEAT in our History.. !!

    Pls mark my words - in next 3 - 4 years - RAJENDRA will be the focus point of several Scholars.. and enough books will be published.

    However - pls be assured that Rajendra did CONQUER part of Northern Provinces - brought Ganges to South - Like Bagheeratha !!

    It is NOT that he brought GODHAVARI water and called it Ganga Water !!

    rgds / sps
  • Today annabishegam at GKC
  • Oh..

    Normally it is well celebrated during Arudhra !


  • dear all:
    Vanakkam.Iam a new member Iwent to gkc yesterday and there was a huge crowd..the collector of ariyalur dt came.. most importantly I saw three newlywed couples...will sendmoreinfo later..
  • Dear ALL,
      Now i have compiled the summarised details about the BATTLE
    ROAD of RJC which i have collected and analysedby my little ENGLISH and TAMIL
    knowledgewith mybasic mould designing knowledge. If you feel any thing
    controverses with my previous details, pls pardon me. because ofconfusing
    statements from scholars and mohammaden historians,Iwasconfused. There are
    LOTS of controversial state ments in the war details of MAHMUD OF GHAZNA.So
    someerroneousdetails are in my previousPosts.Sorry for the confusing
    statements. I have compiled this summary on the base of the Previous details (
    mistakes corrected in this summary ).

    Rajendra’s Ganges Battle Road
    Before enter, I request you all to read the attached journal “ CHOLA
    INVASION ON BENGAL ” then proceed further. Because If you read this you could
    feel that a part of our RJC’s words are Unacceptable. Do you?

    Meikeerthi lines of Rajendra deals with GANGES War :
    விக்கிரம வீரர் சக்கரக் கோட்டமும்
    முதிர் பட வல்லை மதுர மண்டலமும்
    காமிடை வளை நாமணைக் கோணையும்
    வெஞ்சிலை வீரர் பஞ்சப்பள்ளியும்
    பாசுடைப் பழன மாசுணி தேசமும்

    Before we enter into the concept, Lets have a look at the details provided by
    our SPS sir, to help us. Those details as follows.
    Secondary source (1) : RAJENDRA I - Heading :Wars of Rajendra I -
    Pages 12 to 130 - BY M.RAJASEKARA THANGAMANI, History Deptt, Karur
    Arts College, Trichy Dt. Nov 1973.

    (2) Thamizhaga Varalaaru : Makkalum Panpadum :: KK Pillai Page 270 -
    lines 3 - 7 - " Rajendra rushed to help Vidhyadharan, whose common
    friends are Bojan and Kangeyan."

    PRIMARY : " UDAYAR Shree Rajendra Chozha thevar UTTHARAPAADHATHIL
    Boopathiyaarai JEYITHARULI YUTHOSAVA Vibavathaal Gangai Parikiragam
    panniyarulina GANGAI KONDA CHOZHANENNUM thirunamathal
    ITHTHIRUMUTRATHIL vaithu Arulina UTHAMAAKKIRAM Gangai konda Chozhanil
    .. " South Arcot Dt ENNARIRAM inscriptions...

    This SEALS the speculations that it was Rajendra's THEERTHA yathirai - friendly
    trip etc., etc., once and for all.

    JAYASINGA's KULENUR inscriptions mention the trio Bojan - Kangeyan -
    Rajendra fought in support of Saanthala Vidhyadharan against Gazni :
    Page 123 / Secondary source 1

    PRIMARY: Dandaputhi conquest :: Ep Indica Vol XXII 153 / 154

    Rajendra's army brought Ganges water in vessels : T.A.S. Vol III No:
    34, Kanyakumari inscriptions.

    Rajendra's army Crossed Ganges on the backs of Elephants stood in a
    row :: Thiruvalangadu CP : SII Vol III - verse 112; ( where? )

    Rajendra met the C-in-C on the banks of Godhavari - verse 118, 119 and 122.
    Gangai Konda Cholapuram - GKC - Jala Jaya Sthambam - ASI 1911 - 12 PP
    173 - 174.
    Other Details Which are Considerable : ( my question to be traced )
    Alberuni says :
    1. A prince of Pala dynasty of KABUL took refuge at Bhojaraja ( who is this
    prince? )
    2. The Last shahi king Bhimpala ruled for 5 years. ( how? )
    Details by Mohammaden historians :
    1. At the war end Mahmud Left a large army at mathura.
    2. Mahmud of ghazna in his 2nd attack on kalinjar, gifted 15 forts to
    vidhyadhara, for his praising verse about him with 300 elphants. ( is this
    believable? )
    1. In the book “ Bhojaraja ” P.T. sreenivasa ayyangar ( written around 1931 )
    says that in the year 1025 mahmud of ghazna’s general conquered sindh. ( why
    once again? )
    2. Most of the scholars says that at the time of somnathpur expedition The
    punjab was permanently annexed to ghazna ( why once again ? ).

    3. In udaipur prasasti and ujjain mahakaal temple inscription Bhojaraja
    records his victory against TURUSKAS.

    Mathura Mandalam :
    In this name, the term MANDALAM clearly shows that Mathura is a
    province of a country. As per the Meeikeerthi lines the 5th line gives a county
    name “ MASUNI DESAM ”. So, its possible to conclude that mathura manadalm,
    namanaikkonai, panjappalli belongs to Masuni desam.  
    As per the previous details, Mahmud had his hold up to mathura till 1020.
    In the year 1025 he had a need to reconquer sindh in the year 1025. why it

    To trace the reason also, we have to trace other 3 places in RJC’s victorious
    record .
    At mathura we have to confirm something to decide where to proceed.
    As per the meikeerthi, Adinagar and its following places fells under PURVADESA.

    Here we look at the inscription of Rjc from Ennayiram.
    “UDAYAR Shree Rajendra Chozha thevar UTTHARA PAADHATHIL
    Boopathiyaarai JEYITHARULI YUTHOTHSAVA Vibavathaal GangaiParikiragam
    panniyarulina GANGAI KONDA CHOZHANENNUM thirunamathal ITHTHIRUMUTRATHIL vaithu
    Arulina UTHAMAAKKIRAM Gangai konda Chozhanil ”

    “ மீட்பு ” ( i.e ) restoration.
    So its possible to confirm that Ganges has been RESTORED by RJC in UTTARA PATHA.

    Uttara Patha :
    According to the statements already stated, Uttarapatha is the Region west to
    the PEHOA in haryana.
    According to the ancient statements, uttarapatha comprises the western regions
    from PEHOA in HARYANA To Yavana Desa. Can be expressed in another way as the
    region between SARASWATHI river and OXUS River ( approx ).
    In the records of rjc After kadaram war therewas no war as a notable one. This
    “ uttara patha ” victory is a great one. If it was happened after kadaram war it
    must be added in the meikeerthi. But there is no notification about this. So
    that the “ un identified and un traceable places ” in meikeerthi are belongs to
    the UTTARAPATHA region.

    So we have to search the other THREE destinations in UTTARAPATHA.
    The GANGES :
      I think that, all the scholars were confused by the poetic
    representation of the western border of the pala kingdom of bengal which is
    notified as “ வெறிமலர் தீர்த்தத்து எறிபுனல் கங்கையும் ” ( The ganges’s sacred
    bathing station filled with flowers and the river course splashes water by
    dashing on the bank ). It clearly shows the western border of the pala kingdom
    which is Benaras, In present days also, people praying at ganges by spreading
    the flowers. It shows that it’s a regular practice from the ancient days.
      The journal “ chola invasion on Bengal ” clearly analyses and
    states that the war between the over lord of bengal and Rjc took place on the
    sea tracts at where the ganges joins with the sea. This clearly shows that rjc
    never enter in to bengal. Because the king mahipala was defeated. After a king
    was defeated, it is possible to say that rjc won the whole kingdom. That is
    clearly mentioned in meikeerthi, the borders of the pala kingdom, uttara radha
    in the north, vangala desa in the east, danda bhukthi in the south and benaras
    in the west. The other names of the kings mentioned were the feudatories of

    Now we have to confirm that which is this Ganges mentioned in the inscription.
    The Matsya-Puranasays:
    After the GANGES had settled on earth, it divided itself into seven arms, the
    Matya or middle of which is the main stream, known as the GANGES.

    Three flowed eastward, Nalini, Hradini and Pavani, and three westward Sita,
    Cakshu, and SINDHU.
    The river Sita rises in the Himavant, and flows through these countries :
    Salila, Karstuba, Cina, Yarvara, Yavasa (?), Baha, Pushkara, Kulata, Mangala,
    Kavara, and Sangavanta (?) ; then it falls into the western ocean.

    South of Sita flows the river Cakshus, which irrigates the countries Cina, Maru,
    Kalika (?), Dhulika (?), Tukhara, Barbara, Kaca (?), Palhava, and Barwancat.
    The river SINDHU flows through the countries Sindhu, Darada, Zindutunda (?),
    Gandhara, Rurasa (?), Krura (?), Sivapaura, Indramaru, Sabati (?), Saindhava,
    Kubata, Bahimarvara, Mara, Mruna, and Sukurda.

    Scholars says that the River which flows through the Sindhu desa got its Name as
    SINDHU, now INDUS.
    So, according to the above statements we could confirm that The Ganges Mentioned
    in the inscriptions is the present SINDHU river.
    The Opponent :
    If the Ganges need to be restored, there must be a hold by some
    other one. Now we have to confirm that who had his hold at Sindhu river.

    According to the statements by mohammadden poets and historians. The king
    mahmud of ghazna is the over lord upto Kalinjar in U.P. in the East. So its
    possible to confirm that the opponent king is “ Mahmud of ghazna ”.

    In the year 1010, a governor was appointed by mahmud in Multan.
    In the year 1012 or 1014 a governor appointed in Nandana in salt range.
    In the year 1018-19, A large army left at Mathura ( by al- utbi ). It shows that
    Mathura is a province of the country of GHAZNA.
    Now its possible to calculate that the Namanaikkonai and Panjappalli may be the
    Places at where the Governors were appointed by Mahmud.
    Need to confirm only.
    By this name, there is no possiblity to trace a place in such name,
    in the north west regions. It may be a poetic representation of a place. 

    The first detail doubtable about this place,
    Yuan chwang notifies a place in the name of “ pichenpopulo ” in the
    sindh region.

    Most of the, Yuan chwang’s notifications about the names of the countries were
    related pronunciations to their original names.

    As per this concept, this name sounds a bit like “ panjappalli ”. its location
    is located by Alexandar cunningham as the ALOR or AROR below MULTAN. Also says
    this name may be a second name of this place.

    In Tamil “ PALLI ” means “ school ” and also means “ the Junction point of the
    rivers ”.
    As per the “ junction point of the rivers ” concept, some considerable words,
    iyatta now
    known as jehlum, from the city of thename on its western banks, and the river
    Candraha join each other nearly fifty miles above Jahravar, and pass along west
    of Multan.

    The river Biyas flows east of Mnltan, and joins afterwards the Biyatta and

    The river Irava is joined by the river Kaj, which rises in Nagarkot in the
    mountains of Bhatul.

    Thereupon follows as the fifth the river Shatladar (Satlej).

    After these five rivers have united below Multan
    at a place called pancanadu, i.e. the meeting-place of
    the five rivers ( பஞ்சப்பள்ளி ), they form an enormous watercourse.
    In flood-times it sometimes swells to such a degree as to cover nearly a space
    of ten farsakh , and to rise above the tree of the plains, so that afterwards
    the rubbish carried by the floods is found in their highest branches like
    birds-nests. The Muslims call the river, after it has passed the Sindhi city

    This confluence of thefive rivers, nowcalled as PANJNAD river,
    this flows about 45 milesand join with the INDUS near bythe city "

    I have attached the MAP of the presentjunction of these rivers, this one could
    give you a clear view.
    As per the statement of RJC,
      Rajendra's army Crossed Ganges on the backs of Elephants
    stood in a
    row :: Thiruvalangadu CP : SII Vol III - verse 112;
      This must be done, beforeINDUS joins with panjnad
    river. Beforejoin with the panjnad river the stream of indus is considerably
    short as possible to be crossed with a FORD.
    In the Meikeerthi, this place has been described as “ வெஞ்சிலை வீரர்
    ”. Even though this word have a direct meaning as “ bold and tough ” which is an
    usual thing, that all the warriors must be bold and tough. There is nothing
    seems to be special that it must be noted in a “ MEIKEERTHI ”.
      I thought that it may be an interpretation of the word “ வெண் சீலை
    வீரர் ” ( i.e ) the warriors who wore the White clothes, which exactly matched
    with the dress code of the arabs who were the rulers of the MULTAN, who had
    friendliness with SHAHI kings.
    According to the previous statements, there was a governor in
    MULTAN. So its possible to conclude that MULTAN province of Ghazna country is
    the “ PANJAPPALLI ”.
    There is no possibiblity to trace a place in the north west region
    in this name. It may be a tamil translated sanscrit word. As I translated it
    into sanscrit in the earlier post as “ SATHUR DHURGGAM ” which means FOUR FORTS.
    ( which is acceptable by the further statement )
    A journal of the ASIATIC SOCIETY volume 11, says that “ NANDANA ” is
    the name of the FOUR TOWNS ( which means FOUR FORTS ). Its only the available
    source to suggest that the NANDANA region is the NAMANAIKKONAI which was ruled
    by the last shahi king bhimapaladevasahi ( inscriptional name ).

    Possibilty OF this Region :
    Alberuni says “ A shahi prince took refuge at Bhojaraja ”.
    who is this prince ?.
    In the year around 1017, Alberuni was brought to GHAZNA by mahmud.
    At this time The King of the Shahi dynasty was Trilohanapala. After 1017 only,
    he could come to NANDANA, at where he stayed for some years and wrote his book.
    If he talks about a prince, he must be a descendent of Trilohanapala.
    In the year 1021 trilolohanpala was murdered by his own mutinous troups.
    There are no other records about the kings of shahi kings after
    bhimpala, the son of trilohanapala who is the PRINCE at the time of his father’s
    death. He is the shahi PRINCE who took refuge at BHOJARAJA. There are No other
    Possibities of ANY OTHER ONE.

    Alberuni also says that “ BHIMPALA ” ruled for 5 years. Scholars
    says that he was ruled at NANDANA, upto the time of SOMNATH conquest By mahmud
    or in the year 1025 - 1026.
    If a PRINCE who took refuge at a king, RULED for some years is
    possible, only when he win the ENEMY who occupied his COUNTRY.

    In the year 1012 or 1014 a governor was appointed at NANDANA by Mahmud of

    In udaipur prasasti and ujjain mahakaal temple inscription Bhojaraja records his
    victory against TURUSKAS.
    If bhojaraja records victory against TURUSHKAS, Its also A record of
    GANGEYA. )

    Jaya simha says this in Very simple words as,
    JAYASINGA's KULENUR inscriptions mention the trio Bojan -
    Kangeyan -
    Rajendra fought in support of Saanthala Vidhyadharan against Gazni :
    Page 123 / Secondary source 1.
      Now it is possible to be Calculated that, NANADANA
    region has the High probability to be NAMANAIKKONAI. To reach “ PANJAPPALLI ”
    which is MULTAN province, the entry point or “ the frontier of hind ” which is
    SIRHIND, which is the eastern border of shahi kingdom, must be took in to
    This Nandana region fom jailum river to SIRHIND east to satlej river
    is the only possible place which was expressed as “ NAMANAIK KONAI

    In the book “ THE CHOLAS ” KAN says that “ naga country which was
    surrounded by green fields ".

    ( i.e ) NAGA country surrounded by green fields which are irrigated by RIVERs.

    According to the ancient civilisation details, people were settled near by a
    water source like river, falls etc…. Agricultural lands were irrigated by a
    channel from the river.

    Why this maasuni desa is mentioned as “ irrigated by river ”.
    In the “ BHARATHA VARSHA ” A region which had a number of rivers, is the REGION
    where the “ SAPTHA SINDHU ” rivers flows together within a short region. Small
    branch streams of These rivers and their tributaries were also flows here and
    there. This causes direct irrigation to the fields.
    In the Mekeerthi lines, It has been mentioned in the sense of , it
    is the country which had “ mathura mandalam, namanaikkonai and panjappalli ” as
    its provinces.
    In the book “ Bhojaraja ” P.T. sreenivasa ayyangar ( written around
    1931 ) says that, in the year 1025 mahmud of ghazna’s general conquered SINDH.

    region from, around HINDU KUSH mountain region to SIRHIND in indiawas called
    he whole india was
    called as HINDUSTHAN. SIRHIND was called as the “ FRONTIER of HIND ( Hindhusthan
    ) ”.

    In the year 1025, The genaral of MAHMUD conquered SINDH ( i.e ) Sindhusthan.

    As per the statements of mohammaden historians, Mahmud of ghazna is the over
    lord upto Kalinjar in the year 1020. Then, in the year 1025, he RE-CONQUERed the
    Sindhusthan. This clearly shows that HE LOST his HOLD in sindhusthan.

    Acoording to the MOHAMMADEN historians, the 15 forts were gifted by Mahmud and
    came under control of vidhyadhara from MAHMUD ( Forts from KABUL to KALINJAR ).
    The story which was told by them is unacceptable as the forts were
    gifted by mahmud to vidhyadhara. A chandela RAJPUT king praised his enemy, is
    also an UNBELIEVABLE ACT of a RAJPUT king.
    So that, the story of GIFTING the 15 forts, is a built up story by
    words, which was created by them to HIDE the DEFEAT OF MAHMUD of GHAZNA by the
    CONFEDERACY of RAJENDRA, Bhojaraja, Gangeya and Vidhyadhara.

    Mahmud of GHAZNA lost his hold in the year 1021- 1022, in this year
    BHIMPALA ASCEND the his throne after his refuge at Bhojaraja. Its also confirms
    that HE GOT BACK his own land.
    So, now we could confirm that MAASUNI DESA is the COUNTRY, which had GHAZNA as
    its capital. To attack this GHAZNA the GANGES ( INDUS ) must be crossed at
    Panjappalli. To reach panjappali, namanaikkonai must be cleared from occupation.

    Now The country of MAHMUD of ghazna, which was the NAGA land, ( MAASUNI DESA )
    could be confirmed by the presence of NAGA people by the statements from the
    Number of scholars gives the statements about the presence of NAGA people in the
    ancient days, inthe areas around KABUL, SINDHUSTHAN, KANGRA and MATHURA ( from
    the time of MAHABARATHA to the time of BUDHDHA, even later also).

    To ensure pls refer the books
    “ The origin of Saivism and its history in the Tamil land ”

    “ Sun and the Serpent ”
    Some other books in my reference details.
    As PER the ABOVE details I CONCLUDE that theregions MTHURA

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