The Medieval Chola Empire and its relations with Malaysia, Indonesia & Thailand
  • Date:5-2-2012

    Dear Readers

    The following URLs lead to my two new Threads (Part 1&2 - in the "Mayyam Hub" Website - still under construction) - with the above Title, which are given to those - "who may be" interested in the Subject matter.

  • Dear sir,

    Great article sir...

    Thanks for sharing with us...

    In this article,

    You mentioned Rajendra's Grand son (I.e) Rajendra II's son lead a part of Rajendra's army in the Kadaram Battle...

    If you don't mind could you pls give the Base details like meikeerthi lines or inscriptions behind this conclusion...

    Thanking You

    Sakthi sree
  • Dear sir,

    I have been reading ur posts both here and in mayyam. I got a lot of insight about rajendra's kadaram invasion. I am right now doing a story on the same. Could you please help me by sending the relevant details you have on this with citation?
    It would be much appreciated ,
    Thank you.

  • Sriperumpudur Siva temple getting a grant from King of SriVijaya.
    Interesting News sir and thanks for the article.
  • Date: 9-2-2012

    Anbumikka Sankaranarayanan,

    The Inscription which refers to the Sri Vijaya Maharajah starts as follows'

    "Swasthi Sri Sri Vijaya Maharajarkku aandu (etava)thu....."

    See Avanam Journal Issue - 17, July 2006, Inscription No 22 By S.Rajavel

    Also visit the Websites with following URLs

    Anbudan Virarajendra
  • Date: 9-2-2012

    Anbumikka Sakthi Sree,

    Rajendra Chola - 1 (A.D.1012-1044)didnot go himself to the Gangai river front to gain victory over Gangetic Region countries. Hence he only assumed the title as "Gangaikonda Kondaan". He gave the pride of the title "Gangaikonda Cholan" to his younger (step)brother who lead the Gangetic expedition on behalf of him.

    Likewise Rajendra Chola - 1 didnot go himself to Kadarem in Malaysia to gain victory over that region. Hence he only assumed the title as "Kadaarem Kondaan". He gave the pride of the title "Kadaaremkonda Cholan" to his son Rajendra Chola - 2(A.D.1051-1063)'s son. Actual name of this grandson still clearly not known.

    The Meikeerththi of Rajendra Chola -2 clearly states that he appointed,

    (1) "...Siriya Thaathaiyakiya (father Rajendra Chola - 1's younger [step] brother) verul valik "Gangaikonda Cholanai" pongi kal Irumudi Cholan entrum ---- and
    (2) ".....Iruthayathu anbodu karuthu Kaathalarul (Sons).....thin thirat "Kadaaremkonda Cholanai" Thinakaran kulaththu sirappamar Chola Sanakarasan endrum...."

    There is no single inscription available to us to confirm that Rajendra Chola - 1 had the titles "Gangaikonda Cholan" & "Kadaremkonda Cholan" for himself to commemorate the two great events in the Chola history, exibiting his great statemanship in passing on the glory of the achievements made by those who worked for him to the respective people.
  • Date: 9-2-2012

    Anbumikka Malarvili,

    What you have asked me is a "Herculean-Task" and impossible for the moment as I need more time to finish the above article which is still "under construction" and will grow further with more informations. When my final book comes out with all evidences,discussions, photos and maps it will be very very voluminous. However precisely let me know which sections you would like some details, may be I could help a little like how I have answered the other two readers. Even my article titled "The Medieval Chola Empire and its relations with the Chinese Empire" is also still "under construction". So I need lots of time for them.
  • Thanks for clarifying It as Kolappakkam and not Sri Perumpudhur.

    Thanks for clarifying sir.
  • Date: 10-2-2012

    Anbumikka Sankaranarayanan,

    The Epigraphist who deciphered this inscription - Dr S.Rajavel,
    in the Avanam Journal has referred to the location of this stone slab as at Kolappaakkam, Agatheeswarer Koyil, Sri Perumputhur vattam, Kanchipuram Mawattam.
  • Dear Sir,

    A very greatposting on much expected topic Sir.Thank youfor thedetailed information Sir.

    I will try reading yourother research articles too.

    with regards
    S.Arul Ganesh.
  • Dear Virarajendra Sir,

    I agree.. My question was so vague.

    Let me make it more specific and also put out the reason.
    I am currently writing a fiction based on Rajendra's invasion on Kadaram. I have been looking for any information regarding to this in all and any forms.
    I am not a historian but a history enthusiast and I am trying my level best to add facts in my fiction.

    Now, I have got the most important details such as the mention of mt. jerai(kedah peak) as valavathi parvatham from your paper. Thosepapers (might still be under construction) were very informative and opened new doors of perception for me.

    I read the malay annals and the passages that hinted on Rajendra's grandson and his malay offspings. Now, that is my concern. We know that malay annals were more mythical than anything factual not denying the fact that there are definitive facts that are hidden in those stories. But how do we confirm that it is Rajendra 1 that was mentioned as Raja Suran excluding the words that hint on his invasion?.Is there anything else that confirm this detail?

    For the record, I have not used this perspective in my story (the malay lineage of Cholas). But I do wish to know more about this and Rajathiraja's part in the invasion, what his siblings (rajendra 2, virarajendra)were doing at that time and most importantly why he was called kadaram kondan and not srivijayam kondan while most part of kadaram and the others that were allegedly captured during the invasion supposedly belonged in srivijayan empire.should we assume thatthey all could have been vassal kingdoms of Kadaram under srivijayan rule.

    I guess I have made myself clear.
    Please advise me on my queries. I am alittle more than confused

    Thank you,

    With heartful of warm thoughts
    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    Being a full-time mother is one of the highest salaried jobs in any field, since the payment is pure love.
  • Dear Madam

    very nice signature statement:

    Being a full-time mother is one of the highest salaried jobs in any field, since the payment is pure love.
  • Date: 10-2-2012

    Anbumikka Malarvili,

    We greatly appreciate you final statement:-

    "Being a full-time mother is one of the highest salaried jobs in any field, since the payment is pure love"

    This is what "many Children of the modern age lack in very many families everywhere - and that is what all these children are really craving for" - the full time mother's care and love.

    Now coming back to your queries.

    (1) About "Valavathi Parvatham" - The Nepalese Manuscripts of the period the 11th century A.D. refers to great Buddhist centres in India, Srin Lanka and South-East Asia. It mentions of the Buddhist centres at Purushapura, Ghandara in the north-west India, then in Sri Lanka, Kadaarem & Sri Vijaya in South-East Asia etc of that period.

    It refers to the deities in the Buddhist shrines in Kadaaram & Sri Vijaya as follows:

    (1) "Katakadvipe Valavathi Parvathe Lokanatha" and
    (2) "Suvarnapure Sri Vijithapure Lokanatha"

    - which is self explanatory.

    Suvarnapura = Island of Sumatra (of present Indonesia) and Sri Vijithapure = Sri Vijaya

    The contents of these Nepalese Manuscripts are discussed in detail by the Scholar Foucher in his book titled -

    (Nepalese Manuscript with miniature paintings dating 11th century)
    Refer Notes on pages 193 and miniature paintings on page 105

    I will discuss your other queries in the days following.
  • Dear sir,

    Thanks a lot for your kind reply...

    In the meikeerthi refered, I have some doubts about the titles given to the relatives of Rajendra II...

    1. Chola Janagarajan - indicates the lord of Mithila...

    2. Chola AyoththiRajan - indicates the lord of Ayodhya...

    3. Chola KannaKuchiRajan- indicates the lord of Kanyakubja...

    Are these personalities were the Governors of Chola Empire during the time of Rajendra -II... or all these titles simply exaggerated in account...

    Was Rajendra II also invaded northern India in his time and appointed governors ?

    While comparing the details of the northern kings, it seems to be that, these three places were under the Sway of Kalachuri king KarnaDeva S/o Gangeyadeva Vikramadithya...

    Is there any mention in the inscriptions about the northern campaign of Rajendra II ?

    This meikeerthi is a long time confusionto me sir, which I doubt that it actually says, Rajadhirajaappointed his relatives before he went to the battle at where he met his end of life...

    ( in the lines " சுடர்மணி மகுடஞ் சூட்டிப் படிமிசை நிகழு நாளினுள் இகல்வேட்டெழுந்து சென்று ஒண்திறல்

    இரட்டமண்டலமேய்தி நதிகளும் பதிகளுனனேகமும் அழித்தனன் வளவன் என்று மொழிப்பொருள் கேட்டு வேகவெஞ்

    சளுக்கி ஆகவமல்லன் பரிபவம் எனக்கீதென்றரி விழித்து எழுந்து செப்பருங் கீர்த்தி கொப்பத்தகவையில் உடன் எதிர்

    என்று அமர் தொடங்கிய ..................................................................... இனையன பிறவும் முனைவயிற் கொண்டு விசையாபிஷேகம் செய்து................... )

    by comparing Rajendra II's short meikeerthi-s,

    Here the VALAVAN seems to mean the Rajadhiraja who died on the Elephant in the battle of koppamat where Rajendra II coronated, which appears later by the term Visaiyabishekam seythu... ( I feel that, before coronation Rajendra II can'tbe able to honour his relatives like a king )

    gives a view that therelativeswere honoured by Rajadhiraja and notified by Rajendra II in his Meikeerthi ...

    ( Meikeerthi Lines Ref. from Project Madurai )

    Could you pls clarify me sir, if you feel free...

    Thanking You
    Sakthi sree
  • Date: 11-2-2012

    Anbumikka Sakthi Sree,

    I have given an "EXTRACT" from "my own Thread" titled "Rajarajaeswarem & Gangaikonda Cholaeswarem Temples (Part 2)"appearing in the 'Mayyam Hub Website' which will give some insight to the period under discussion and to clear some of your doubts - which is as follows.

    "Rajendra Cholan - 1 commenced his war expeditions in the Indian Mainland when he was yet a co-regent of his father, with the capture of Iddaithurai Naadu the central Karnataka, bordering Andhra Pradesh, Vanavaasi of west Karnataka, in one expedition in the year A.D.1012. He therafter directed his attention on Kollipaakkai of north Andhra Pradesh, and captured same in the year A.D.1013. The above two expeditions were carried our by Rajendra Chola - 1 on behalf of his father Rajaraja Chola - 1.

    In the year A.D.1014 he lead an expedition against the Irrataipaadi Elaraillakam the north Karnataka & south Maharashtra, and captured its capital city the Mannaikadakkam the Maleked, also on behalf of his father, which met the reverse after its intial capture by Rajaraja Cholan in the year A.D.1006.

    With the death of Rajaraja Cholan - 1 in the year A.D.1014, and with the accension of Rajendra Cholan - 1 in the same year as the next emperor of the Chola empire, there was a lapse of two years in the latter continuing with his war expeditions.

    In the year A.D.1016 he first sent an expedition overseas to Elamandalam the Sri Lanka, and brought the entire island under his rule. This was followed by an expedition of Rajendra Cholan to east Kerala in the year A.D.1017 which captured the Kudamalai Nadu.

    Rajendra Cholan's forces crossed seas again, in the year A.D.1018, and captured the Pal Palanthivam the many islands of Maldives & Lakshadweep. This was followed by the capture of Sandimaaththivu the Kavaratti island overseas west of Kerala, in the same year A.D.1018.

    In the year A.D.1019 Rajendra Cholans sent another expedition against the Irrataipaadi Elaraiillakam the north Karnataka & south Maharashtra - now with its new capital at Kalyani, in the northmost Karnataka which the Cholas lost again but re-captured after a battle at Musangi of east Karnataka.

    Rajendra Cholan - 1 with his capture of many regions in the Indian mainland after a lapse of two years he became more ambitious in conquering the northern and north-western regions of India.

    He commenced his war expedition in this direction in the year A.D.1021 with his capture of Sakkarakkoattam the south Chhattisgarh.

    nges river in the north and the other in the north-western direction while he stationed himself at Sakkarakkoattam until the two expeditions were complete.

    The first expedition went towards the north-west of India from Sakkarakkoattam direct to the Mathuramandalam crossing the Kalachuria, Chandella and Paramara kingdoms in between, enabled by the friendly ties the Cholas had with these countries. Chola forces thus captured the kingdoms of Mathuramandalam the west Uttar Pradesh, Namanaikkonam of north Haryana, Panchappalli of east Punjab (of Pakistan) Maasunidesam of north Punjab (of Pakistan) and Athinagar (the Purvadesam - Purva means ancient) of south Kashmir. The great Tamil Epic - Manimekalai specifically states that "Purvadesam - was in the Gandhara country" which encompassed the south Kashmir region. Further Al-Beruni states "....Udunpur in Purvadesa.....". Udunpur is undoubtedly the present Udhampur of south Jammu & Kashmir - a derivation from Udunpur to Udhumpur and then to Udhampur.

    The latter three were the regions of Uttarapatham. Rajendra Cholan - 1 claims in one of his inscription from Kulampandal that he also won the "kings of Uttarapatham". Dharmasastra of Manu states Uttarapatham lies to the west of the place where river Sarawathi disappears. Great Indian Epic Mahabharata states ".....the Yavanas, Kambojas, Gandaras, Kiratas, and Barbarahs who were born in Uttarapatham......", which were all situated in north-western India. Nepali Manuscripts says "....Purushapuram territory in Uttarapatham.....". Purushapura is the present Peshawar in the upper Sind valley region of present Pakistan. Kaviya Mimansa states the Uttarapatha lay on the western side of Prthudaka. The Prthudaka was formerly situated north of present Delhi. The foregoing indicates to us somewhat accurately the regions covered by Uttarapatham, which was conquered by Rajendra Cholan - 1

    This expedition of the forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 towards the north-west of India, was most possibly to assist his ally Paramara Bhoja of Malawa of south Madya Pradesh to fight the invasion of Mahumad of Gazni of west Afghanistan, and also relieve the kingdoms that already fell victims to his invasions, namely the Kanyakubja, Mathura, Namanaikkonam, Panchappalli, Masunidesam and Athinagar.

    The confedaracy that existed between the Bhoja king of Malawa and Rajendra Chola - 1 is 'confirmed' by an inscription from Balagamve in south Maharashtra which refers to Cholas "as the greatest of kings". Another inscription from Kulenur in Karnataka confirms this confederacy was not only between Bhoja of Malawa and Rajendra Chola, but also inclusive of Gangeya of Kalachuria.

    The second expedition went towards towards river Ganges in the north from Sakkarakkoattam and captured the regions of Odda Vishayam of Orissa, Kosala Naadu the north Chhattisgarh, Thandabuththi in north Orissa , Thakkana Laadam in south Jharkhand, Vangala desam the Bangaladesh, Uttara Laadam of north Jharkhand and reached the great river Ganges.

    The Chola Indian Mainland expedition ended in A.D.1022 and details of the countries conquered by his forces in this single expedition was included in his Meikeerthi's from the year A.D.1023

    With the return of the of the Chola forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 to Chola capital, from their victorius expedition to Uttarapatham and Gangetic region countries in A.D.1022, the Royal Guru of Rajendra Cholan - 1 the Isaanasiva Pandithar built a temple at Kulampandel in Tamil Nadu named as Gangaikonda Cholaeswarer temple.

    With his return Rajendra Cholan - 1 claimed a new title as "Gangaikondaan" and gave the title "Gangaikonda Cholan" (the Chola who captured Gangai) to his younger brother who lead the Gangetic expedition".


    Anbudan Virarajendra
  • Date: 11-2-2012

    Anbumikka Sakthi Sree,

    I wish to add further to what has already been given earlier as answer to your question to make it more clear.

    Rajendra Chola - 1 had much control in the north of India even after A.D.1025. This is confirmed by the Meikeerthi of Rajathiraja Chola - 1.

    The extract from my article in Mayyam Hub portrays same as follows:

    "Emperor Rajendra Chola - 1 demised in th year A.D.1044 and his son Emperor Rajathiraja Chola - 1 (A.D.1018 -1054) ascended the throne of the Chola empire.

    At the time Rajathiraja Chola - 1(A.D.1018-1054) "inherited" the Chola Empire from his father the Rajendra Chola - 1 in the year A.D.1044, the extent of the Chola Empire virtually have remained the same for "19 - years" from the time of Rajendra Chola - 1 who formed this empire in the year A.D.1025 - with Mahothai (present Kodungallur of Kerala) in the west, Ilangai (the present Sri Lanka) in the south, Gangai in the north and the Kadaarem (the present Kedah & Perak regions of peninsular Malaysia) in the east.

    The Meikeerththi of Rajathiraja Chola - 1 specifically says
    "....vada thisai Gangaiyum, then thisai Ilangaiyum, kuda thisai Mahothaiyum, kuna thisai Kadaaramum - thandinil konda thaathai (father) than mandalam - venkudai nilalena than kudai nilatttrithisai thorm sengol oatchi...."

    South Indian arasar idi Inscriptions - Vol 5 Inscription No 633, page 252

    Further another Meikeerththi of Rajathiraja Chola - 1 mentions as follows:

    ".....Siriya thhathaiyum thiruth thamaiyanaiyum kurikol than Ilangokkalaiyum neri unar than thiru puthalvar thammaiyum thun elil
    vaanavan, Villavan, Meenavan, Gangan, Ilangaiyarkku Iraivan, polangat Pallavan, Kankkutchiyar Kaavalan, ena ponnani chudar mani mahudam chootti......."

    "......Vada pulaththu iru kalaavathum poru padai nadaaththi, Kandaran, Thinakaran, Naaranan, Kanavathi, vandalar theriyal Mathusuthanan entru enap pala araiyarai munaivaryit thuratthi vambalar tharupolil Kampili nakarul Chalikkiyar Maalikai thakarppiththu ilakkamil Villavar, Meenavar, Verlkula Chalukkiyar, Vallavar, Kosalar, Vanganar, Konkanar, Sinthurar, Iyanar, Singhalar, Bangalar, Aanthirar muthaliya arasar idi thirakalum......"

    South Indian Inscriptions - Vol 5, Inscription No 208, page 520.

    As my reply is going too long taking much time I also request you to read through a third Meikeerththi in the same Vol 5 same page to get more enlightened that Cholas had wars with North Indian kings even during the period of Rajathiraja Chola - 1 and had grip over the rulers of that region and exacted tributes.

    Trust the above will give you an insight to the presense of Cholas in the north during the period Rajathiraja Chola - 1 which continued even during the period of Rajendra Chola - 2. In reality a detailed study will show the Chola hold in many countries in the north India continued up to the period of the Chola king Kulothunga Chola - 1(A.D.1070-1120)
  • dear sir,

    Thanks for your kind replies...

    I will check with some other meikeerthi-s and inscriptions....

    Thanking you

  • Dear Virarajendra Sir:

    You may not know me but I read all your mails. Wow, excellent description of Chola expeditions
    with proofs and quotes from various sources. I am astonished to see that what the group members
    were discussingfor months you have solved all the puzzles in a single mail ! Great work indeed !

  • Date: 11-2-2012

    Anbumikka Malarvili,

    Your next question - why only Kadaremkondan not Sri Vijayamkondan ??

    The regions conquered by Rajendra Chola - 1 in the Indian mainland were:

    (1) Idaiththurai Nadu
    (2) Vanavaasi
    (3) Kollippaakkai
    (4) Mannaikkadakkam,
    (5) Irattaippaadi Elarai-illakkam (all the above he captured as Chola General under Rajaraja Chola - 1)
    (6) Sakkarakkottam (all those below were captured after he became the emperor in A.D.1014 - but war expeditions were lead by other Chola princes)
    (7) Mathuramandalam
    (8) Naamanaikkonam
    (9) Panchappalli
    (10) Maasunidesam
    (11) Aathi Nagar (Purvadesam)
    (12) Ottavishayam
    (13) Kosalanadu
    (14) Thandapuththi
    (15) Thakkana Ladam
    (16) Vangalathesam (Bangaladesh)
    (17) Uththara Ladam
    (18) eri punal Gangaiyum

    They are all big countries of India. After conquering all these regions Rajendra Chola - 1 only commemorated his victory over the Gangetic region where the Gangai river was flowing. He took it as a great achievement & prestige conquering the Gangetic region than the other big countries mentioned in the above list, and hence assumed the name "Gangaikondan" and gave the title to the Prince who lead the expedition as "Gangaikondacholan" inspite of the fact the Gangetic region where the river flows is smaller region compared to the other big countries like Vangaladesam, Kosalai Nadiu, Ottavishayam, Mathuramandalam etc etc

    Like wise the the near overseas countries captured by Rajendra Chola - 1 were:

    (19) Elamandalam (Sri Lanka - muluvathum)
    (20) Palpantheevukal
    (21) Santhimaaththivu

    Like wise the far overseas countries captured by Rajendra Chola - 1 were

    (22) Maapappaalam (Lower region of present Miyanmaar)
    (23) Manakkavarem (Anthamaan and Nicobar Islands}
    (24) Takkolam (Lower west Thailand)
    (25) Mathamalingam (Lower east Thailand)
    (26) Ilangasokam (in north-east peninsular Malaysia)
    (27) Kadaaram (in north-west peninsular Malaysia)
    (29) Mayirudingam (central & south peninsular Malaysia)
    (30) Ilamuridesam (north Sumatra of Indonesia)
    (31) Pannai (north central Sumatra of Indonesia)
    (32) Malaiyur (central Sumatra of Indonesia)
    (33) Sri Vijayam (south central & south Sumatra of Indonesia)
    (34) Mevilibankam (Banka island adjacent to Sri Vijayam)

    In the above overseas countries in South-East Asia too there were many big countries which were very properous and great, but Rajendra Chola - 1 took it as a great achievement & prestige in conquering the kindom of Kadaarem than the other big countries mentioned in the above list not even the large and properous Sri Vijaya Empire - under which many of the above countries were subordinates, and took it as a great pride to call himself only as "Kadaaremkondan" and the Chola prince who lead the expedition as "Kadaremkonda Cholan".

    Only future research - done after all the numerous unpublished Tamil Inscriptions are digitalized and published, possibly we will be able to have more clear facts in respect of same.
  • Date: 12-2-2012

    Anbumikka Malaravili,

    The last of your queries re Malay Annals (Sejarah Melayu) the relevent pages are scanned and uploaded to the PSVP Files section.
    Read through them to get an idea what the Malay Chronicles say on same.
  • Dear veegopalji, dated :
    message 4303 dated 26.04.2004 -
    message 5060 dated : 1.11.2004 and
    message 20408 dated 27.11.2007

    related to the Srihari @ Veerarejendra's mails of Medieval Cholas / Rajendra I - will speak VOLUMES of his Hardwork / dedication and Scholarly nature !!

    He has extensively discussion Cholas - Lankan connections and other foreign connections during his mail flow in 2004.

    He is highly respected in our group.

    rgds / sps
  • Manimangalam - Kamakoti Vinnagaram - speaks the valour of Rajendra, Rajadhi Raja and Vira Rajendra
    Kolappakkam - speaks about the gift by King of Srivaijaya . It has another By Parthivendra Pallavan
    Thirumullai Vayil, Padi, Korattur - associated with Parthivendran,Sembian Ma Devi.
    Add Takkolam, Konar Koil
    Looks we can plan a local trip.
  • Dear Virarajendra sir,

    wow..such dedication in helping others. May you be blessed sir.

    Thank you for your compliments on my signature sir. I may conquer the world but end of day,those simple words from my kids and their smile is the best award I can win.
    Thank you so much for all that information you have given me regarding kadaram invasion. It really is a very timely help and I can't just thank you enough.
    I will save the references for further read.

    Now about why he was kadaram kondan instead of srivijayan kondan- That is a veryplausible reasoning you gave us there sir. It matches quite perfectly.

    It is just that I was merely confused with the mention of "ஸ்ரீ விஜயன்” in the meikeerthi that explains the kadaaram invasion. I thought when the meikeerthi was talking about sangrama andit is mentioning him(or someone else?)as srivijayan soI assumed that sangrama must be the srivijayan king of kadaram and kadaram could have been the capital/regional capital of srivijayam at that time.
    we know it is palempeng of sumatrathat has been considered the capital of srivijaya and there also is a controversy which says that chaiya of south Thailand which could have been sri vi chai ya, could also have been the capital(widely disputed idea).
    But I am considering at this time period Kadaram being one of the main tradeports and also geographically in the centre of srivijayan empire that stretched till nakkon sri thamarat n thailand, Kadaram could have been the place where the chakravarthi stayed(that is what I am using in my 'fiction' story).

    Can you clarify mea little on this front.

    Thanks in advance.

    With heartful of warm thoughts
    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    Being a full-time mother is one of the highest salaried jobs in any field, since the payment is pure love.
  • Dear sir...

    In between all your words,

    I have a longtime doubt that " why Rajendra had the a Title Gangai Kondan " instead of mentioning the country names like Mannai konda chola, etc...,

    Is there any purpose of Ganges to be freed from the occupants


    was it occupied...


    Simply Rajendra just assisted his allies!!!!

    Could you pls explain me sir...

    Thanking You

    Sakthi sree
  • Dear Sir :

    There is one Kolapakkam [near Manappakkam] near MIOT Hospital, Chennai.  Similarly there
    is another Takkolam near Chennai. Do both have any connections with the Chola empire ?

  • Date: 15-2-2012

    Anmbumikka Malarvili,

    Your reference,

    ".....It is just that I was merely confused with the mention of "ஸ்ரீ விஜயன்” in the meikeerthi that explains the kadaaram invasion. I thought when the meikeerthi was talking about sangrama and it is mentioning him(or someone else?)as srivijayan so I assumed that sangrama must be the srivijayan king of kadaram and kadaram could have been the capital/regional capital of srivijayam at that time.
  • Dear sir

    Can you tell us about the bringing of the Thorana as a war trophy - also
    are there any plates with RJC's seals prior to the above event - wherein
    there is no thorana in his seal - just to be clear that the thoranam in his
    seal is the symbolic depiction of his victory over Sri Vijaya
  • Dear Mr Srihari

    Thanks for such a wonderful thread on this topic. The discussions are excellent. Your remarks on Rajendra's step brother Gangaikonda cholan. I have read from Mr Sethuraman on this topic. He had quoted few inscriptions that support the existence of this step brother.

    Now the question is, was he Rajaraja's own son? or Aditya Karikala's son? Or.. Uttama chola's son?

    Nilakanda sastri identifies one Karikala Kannan featured in Tanjore temple inscriptions as the son of Aditya

    I look forward to your thoughts on this.

    Mikka anbudan
    Gokul Seshadri
  • Date: 16-2-2012

    Anbumikka Malarvili,

    You have mentioned,

    "Is there any evidence that says anything about sangarama's personal life like his daughter and her name?

    More information regarding sangarama and kadaraam if you can is much appreciated.

    Kindly refer my Thread "The Medieval Chola Empire and its relations with Malaysia, Indonesia & Thailand - Part 2" which speaks on Sangirama's daughter, Airlanga and Sri Vijaya Asharma.

    Mikka anbudan

  • Date: 16-2-2012

    Anbumikka Gokul,

    I will answer your questions shortly.

    I have my gratitude to you as you was the first person who introduced me to the PSVP Web Site around the year 2003/2004.

    In the meantime I wish you to also study through my recent replies to the Reader "Malarvili" in this Website where I have given out also the "original evidences" where ever required hitherto not known to many Scholars - which will be usefull for your record purposes.

    Earlier I intended to publish a book titled "The Medieval Chola Empire and it's relations with South & South-East Asia - consolidating all the facts I have collected and written as seperate threads having the following titles in this Website & more in website.

    (1) Medieval Chola Empire & its relations with Kerala
    (2) Medieval Chola Empire & its relations with Miyanmar
    (3) Medieval Chola Empire & its relation with Sri Lanka
    (4) Medieval Chola Empire & its relations with Maldive Islands
    (5) Medieval Chola Empire & its relations with Chinese Empire
    (6) Medieval Chola Empire & its relations with Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore & Thailand.(Andaman & Nicobar Islands included)
    (7) Medieval Chola Empire & its relations with countries upto North & North Western - Mainland India (still under preparation)

    All historical informations collected in connection with same from original Historical, Literary - Documents, Inscriptions, Archeological discoveries made in the respective countries under reference, by me beginning from the year 1980 including collection of photos etc. Some of these evidences are new to the Indian & South-East Asian historical community.

    Now as my age is gradullay catching up (67 years)I wonder whether I could accomplish this ambition and now I thought of "giving out all the evidences to others (Free for all)" which I have collected over many years from deep study in many Libraries, Books, visting places including Kedah, Bujang valley, Ipoh, Seramban, Malacca, Kuala lumpur, Jakarta in Java of Indonesia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu, and all the museums in all these respective places etc etc - without being lost to others and for the posterity of the future Tamil community as a whole.

    The first two Research Articles (History & Religion) which appears with "all evidences" in the Mayyam Hub Website are "The great Significance of Kodungallur of Kerala in the history of Kerala and Tamil Nadu", and the "Evolution of Saivaism in Tamil Nadu"

    I have also read my first Research Article (in English) titled the "The Medieval Chola Empire and its relations with Malaysia & Indonesia" in the 6th International Tamil Conference - Seminar held in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia in the year 1987 presided by Dr Noburu Karashima and in the presence of Dr Singaravelu of the University of Malaya - Malaysia and other Scholars from different countries.


    By Profession I am a Mechanical Engineer and has also served in three other Engineering Companies as Technical Director & Marketing Director.
  • Dear sir,

    Thank you so much for re-routing me. I will definetely read it fully and come back. Thank you once again.

    With heartful of warm thoughts
    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    Being a full-time mother is one of the highest salaried jobs in any field, since the payment is pure love.

    Dear Sir,

    I know how you feel. But Please do not worry about those copycats. It is not worth your time. Those who just copy paste cannot survive for long with that technique and the real wisdom will always shine with its purity. Please cheer up.
    We need people like you.

    P.S: I am not saying this since you asked but I already added your name and Gokul.Seshadri sir's name(among many others including K.N. Shastri and coede`s) in my novel's 'ennurai'.

    With heartful of warm thoughts
    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    Being a full-time mother is one of the highest salaried jobs in any field, since the payment is pure love.
  • Dear Sir,

    Yes I already read this post of yours. Infact that is what increased my confusion about chola's malay offsprings. I read the passsage in Malay chronicles as well. I want to know if there is any evidence 'outside of malay chronicles' probably from our side - such as an inscription, to reinforce this information. Do we know these malay offsprings tamil names? This grandson of Rajendra chola 1 who is said to have invaded kadaram (king shulan) must have been really young for a sea invasion. Could we assume here that he might have been accompanied by his father RajathiRaja(?) and acted as 'thanda naathan' for that invasion and thus got all the credits?

    Do we know his birth name? Did he marry both Onung kiu and Putri Gangaa?
    The offsprings who came to India to rule over chandragiri and the such, do we have any inscription here to confirm this?

    One more doubt. I read somewhere that this sangirama was the daughter of airlangga. She was the daughter of airlangga and a srivijayan princess in whose name was that srivijayasrama was built and that she went as an ascetic after few years just like her father. Could this information hold any possibility?

    I know I have been pushing my limits with so much doubts and questions, but please do help me .
    Thank you in advance.

    With heartful of warm thoughts
    Malarvizhi Baskaran

    Being a full-time mother is one of the highest salaried jobs in any field, since the payment is pure love.
  • Dear Sir,

    Thanks for the wonderful post.i amalways amazed by your way of building a subject. I havealso shared with you in the forum that our History books should be written like this. (Though i differed with you many times on the issues related to religion- that is a different issue)

    Articles, Photographs are all cut pasted across.Even CEOsdo this.

    Our Member - Raju sirs travalogues were copied word by word. within a day of his posting, that blog used to post the same article.

    Ilakkiyathula idhellam sagajam sir.
  • Dear Sir

    Your invaluable efforts are laudable. We feel privileged to have you in this forum.

    > WORD TO WORD (some time including Color Fonts and highlights made

    I clearly understand the agony and pain of an original researcher. Internet - with all its wonderful potentialities - has its limitations. I hope and pray that you consolidate your lifetime research into a book form.
  • Date: 19-2-2012

    Anbumikka Sakthisree,

    Your query below, and others about Indraratha, Athi Nagar, etc etc, I prefer to discuss same 'further' once I start my other research article titled,

    "Medieval Chola Empire & it's relations with countries upto North East & North West - Mainland India.

    This will appear in Mayyam Hub only after I "complete fully" the present article titled "Medieval Chola Empire & its relations with Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore & Thailand.

    I have decided to "share all evidences in connection with the above Research Article with the other Research - Scholars which now needs more time & attention to same for the time being

    Mikka anbudan

  • Date: 19-2-2012

    Ambumikka Vijay,

    That will be a "very important discovery by you" if Rajendra's Seals prior to the Kadaarem expedition are without the Thoranam. I will check on same "in the lines of your thinking" and come back soon.
  • Dear Sir,

    Thanks a lot for the huge volumes of information.

    Do we have any inscriptions or literature references mentioning this 'Pact or treaty' of Cholas with the Paramars (Bhojan).

    Probably this association could be the reason for a southern version of the Agni-Kunda origin legend. Paramars were the early claimants of this version for their origin (10th century), ofcourse only if we discount the Kapilar's song on one of the velir chiefs.
  • I think there is an inscription hailing
    Cholas as the greatest rulers or something like that.

    It is also interesting to see the BhojeswarShiva Lingamis very Big very much built like the Tanjavur Big Temple or the Gangai Konda Cholapuram Big Temple.,_Madhya_Pradesh

    So there must have been cultural interactions also between Paramar Bhojas and Cholas.
  • Date: 22-2-2012

    Anbumikka Karthik-S & Karthik-K

    I am giving an extract from my Research Article titled "Rajarajaeswarem & Gangaikondaeswarem Temples - Part 3, in the Mayyam Hub Web site.

    ".....This expedition of the forces of Rajendra Cholan - 1 towards the north-west of India, was most possibly to assist his ally Paramara Bhoja of Malawa of south Madya Pradesh to fight the invasion of Mahumad of Gazni of west Afghanistan, and also relieve the Hindu kingdoms of Kanyakubja, Mathura, Namanaikkonam, Panchappalli, Masunidesam and Athinagar.

    The confedaracy that existed between the Bhoja king of Malawa and Rajendra Chola - 1 is confirmed by an inscription from Balagamve in south Maharashtra which refers to Cholas "as the greatest of kings". Another inscription from Kulenur in Karnataka confirms this confederacy was not only between Bhoja of Malawa and Rajendra Chola, but also inclusive of Gangeya of Kalachuria....."

    There are references in these inscriptions which confirm that there had been a confederacy between Chola, Bhoja and Gangeya. It appears initially this confederacy was necessary to fight against Chalukya Jayasimha - 2 who was another powerful king in the north.

    The confederacy intitially met had a setback and finally won over king Jayasimha - 2. There is an inscription of Jayasimha at Kulenur drawn after this initial setback.

    ".....O Kundiga !! when they name thee in respect of courage what further praise can others give ?? Is it not what is said by the troops of "Chola", "Gangeya" and king "Bhoja", with open mouths as they flee away in the battle where they are pressed by thy elephants...,"


    ".....that famous king Jayasimha - a moon to "the lotus which was king Bhoja glorious as sun", a very lion "to the elephant which was Chola the greatest of kings" - was esteemed the supreme king of kings....having searched out, beset, and pursued ground down and put to flight the "confederacy of Malava".....Kundama the chieftain in the year of Saka era 941 repaired the temple of God Nandikesvaradeva......"


    Mikka Anbudan

  • Awesome!!! So this definitely seals the theory..

    Thanks a lot Sir!!
  • Dear Sir,

    Thanks for the details.
    In Vandargal Vendrargal- Madan raises the question of
    Mohammed Ghazini's invasion at Somnath, its subsequent destruction.
    The question raised by him is, when Rajendra's army went east wards while Westwards came the Invasion.
    Did Rajendra knew about the invasion and avoided taking the western path ?
    I have read K.M.Munshi's Jai Somnatha and gone through the Glory that was Gurjara Desa.
    I have not found in it any refernce to Rajendra or the Chola army helping Bhoja.
    Jawaharlal Nehru in his Glimpses of World History has given lot of attention to this Chola Empire and its influence on Greater India and Indian culture travelling eastward along with the Chola Empire.
    But I think he has not mentioned this Chola Army moving towards western India.
    Scholars like you have to details this and release it as a Book.
    Great Work Sir.

    And in case if any of our members can find a lecture of K.M. Munshi on Vikramaditya - A Pillar of Fire, Please do inform where we may get it.

    Thanking you,
  • Date: 22-2-2012

    Anbumikka Vijay,

    I did some study in connection with what you have mentioned below about the "Vidyatara (Vichchathira) Thorana (Thoranam)" on RJC Seals which was new to me until you mentioned to me of same.

    In the process I studied some writings on the two Seals of Rajendra Chola - 1 which I had access to, one being on Esaalem Cheppedukal by Dr R.Nagaswamy and the other being Aanaimangalam Cheppedukal published in Epigraphia Indica Vol XXII.

    Dr R.Nagaswamy mentions on same as follows:

    "....The Cauri the Svastika and the Flower are auspicious symbols which occur in another Seal of Rajendra as well. The significance of the Tripod seat is uncertain. The emblem of an entrance with festoons is noticed for the first time in this Seal. Rajendra during his conquest of the Sri Vijaya and Kadara countries captured and brought as was trophy - the Vidyatara torana of Kadara ruler Sri Mara Vijayotungavarman (should correctly read as Sangirama Vijayotungavarman). Obviously it is the capture of this Torana mentioned significantly in his records which is also figured on this seal.

    The Seal bears on its periphery Rajendra Chola's well known Sasana.

    Rajad-rajanya-makuta-sreni-ratnesu sasanam
    Etad Rajendra Cholasya Parakesarivarmanah....."

    Archaeological Finds in South India
    (Esaalam Bronzes and Copper Plates)----in
    Tome LXXVI - 1987

    Meaning in Tamil as:
    "Iraasenthira solanaakiya
    parakesariyin intha sasanam arasarkalin mudi varisaikalilulla
    iraththinankalin meethu seluththappattathu"


    I inspected the photos of both Seals, and found in the Esaalem Seal the additional emblem of an entrance with festoons which is not found in the Seal of Aanaimangalam Seal. Since the Aanaimangalam Seal is not clear in the Photo I could only see a Kudai (umbrella), but definitely not the 'emblem of an entrance with festoons'. Hence what Dr R.Nagaswamy mentioned looks acceptable, but the "reference" on the periphery above doesnot make any reference to the Vichchathira Torana'

    May be more light will be thrown on same once we inspect again the Leydan (Aanaimangalam)Plates Seal, Thiruvaalankadu Plates Seal, Karanthai Thamil Sangam Plates Seal, Thiru-Inthalur Copper Plates and Thirukkalar Copper Plates Seal - all of Rajendra Chola - 1.

    Mikka Anbudan

  • Dear Sir

    Thanks for sharing the details reg thorana.

    Tiru Indhaloor copper plates were issued by Rajendra -I's son. (Rajadhiraja if I remember correct).

    Some of us were fortunate enough to touch the velanchery copper plates and few others when we visited chemmozhi manadu.
  • Date: 23-2-2012

    Anbumikka Gokul,

    You are very correct. I made an error in stating Indhaloor Copper Plates are that of Rajendra Chola - 1. It is said in the Semmoli Mahaanaadu issue of a booklet on these Copper Plates "which states" - that the Order for the Endowments to the temple was given by Rajathiraja Chola - 1 before he went to the war at Koppam. This Endowments were recorded subsequently on copper plates by his younger brother Rajendra Chola - 2 in his nineth year A.D.1061 (correctly it should read as A.D.1060 as Rajendra - 2 became the heir apparent in the year A.D.1051,)after the demise of Rajathiraja Chola - 1 in the battle at Koppam.

    I understand the Indhalur Copper Plates have now been fully read, and the book with the text of these Copper Plates in now in Print, and will be available within 2/3 months time as per the advices of an Officer of TamilNadu Archaeological Department.

    I missed the Semmoli Mahaanaadu which I regret. With regards to the Cholar Cheppedukal - upto now I was fortunate only to 'touch and see' the Karanthai Thamil Sangam Cheppedukal - when I visited this Sangam premises to see these Cheppedukal in the year 1980. Also collected the Text of these Cheppedukal published by this Sangam in their monthly Journal the 'Thamil Polil' by the 'great Chola Historian' Thiru Sathaasiva Pandaaraththaar.

    Mikka anbudan

  • Dear sir,

    Many thanks. I have a friend who has promised to get me pictures of the
    plates from the Leiden Museum - hopefully, will able to share it with the
    group soon
  • wow.. that is great !!
    thanks & congrats dear Vijay.. "HOBBIER OF TRUE HISTORY "

    - sps

  • Date: 23-2-2012

    Anbumikka Vijay,

    It will be also helpful if you are able to have a look at the Photos of the Indhalur Cheppedukal Seal, Thiruvalankadu Cheppedukal Seal, which I am still unable to get at. The Karanthai Thamil Sangam Plates I wonder whether there is a photo of same in the book on Karanthai Cheppedkal by K.G.Krishnan, which I have to check.
  • Dear Sir,
    Please see whether the image in the "The Hindu" link is of any value?
    Please note the dots in Tiger (instead of stripes). Any views?
  • Date: 24-2-2012

    Anbumikka Vijay Pavendran,

    It's great. Thanking you very very much for providing a clear photo of Karanthai Thamil Sangam Cheppedukal Seal. We are also looking forward for the clear photo of Leidan Cheppudukal Seal which Thiru Vijay is arranging for the members. Likewise if we can get at the clear photos of the Thiruvaalankaadu, Thirukkalar & Esaalam Cheppedukal (of Rajendra - 1)Seals, we will possibly be able to confirm what Thiru Vijay has 'highlighted' that the Vidyadara Thoranam would have been included in the Chola Seals after the Sri Vijaya & Kadaarem war, and which Dr R.Nagaswamy claims to be so in respect of the Esaalam Cheppedukal Seal.

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