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  • Sir,

    if these countries are said hre with recent names, it wud be gud..

  • கூர்க்க நாடு = may not be நேபாளம்? It may be Coorg ie. present Mathikeri,udupi provinces in Karnataka.

    with regards

    S. Arul Ganesh
  • Yes -- Possible. It is also referred as Kudamalai nadu.

    What is the difference between Kalingar and Oddarar - North and south of Odissha?
  • dear sir,

    kalinga - south , Utkala - north, Odra ( proper ) - to the west of both kalinga and utkala... parts of kalinga and odra formed kongoda....
  • Sir - idhu unga subject. Please give the current names of these places as requested by Krithika.
  • புராதன இந்தியா என்னும் பழைய 56 தேசங்கள் - பி.வி.ஜெகதீச அய்யர் --- could give more ideas about the current regions...

    most of the scholars's words differs regarding the countries... which can't be sure...

    Studies in the geography of Ancient and medieval India - D.C.Sircar gives a different account...
  • What are the refernces of Chera Chola Pandyas in North.

    Other than -

    Ashokan edicts
    Hati Kumba
    Ramayana and Mahabharata

    Please tell us from Northern epigraphs, Sanskrit & Pali works
  • A Paramara king LaksmaDeva's prasasti, says he defeated Anga and Kalinga in the east, cola and also pandya in tamraparni valley in the south , turuskas on the banks of Vamksu in the north...

    It is referred by Sircar, as an imitation of Raghu's digvijaya in Raghuvamsa, while describing the Chakravarti Shetra.
  • In that case Raghu Vamsa becomes imporatant.

    what does it say?
  • A commentary on Raghuvamsa by Mallinatha, says...

    Raghu starts his dig vijaya from Eastern Countries on the eastern sea; the bay of Bengal...

    Thence he marched towards south and conquered the Pandya king...

    Further towards west and conquered the Parasikas ...

    Then reached north , where he conquered Hunas on the banks of Vanksu ; the Oxus river

    and the lord of Prajyothisa; the kamarupa...
  • Now One more doubt.

    That means no Kalabras in kalidasa period?
  • While analysing other accounts given by Sircar,

    He has notified the borders of the Chakravarthi Shetra, with out mentioning the other countries in between the borders ( most of the accounts )...

    Can't sure the rest details about the other countries came into conflict with the kings, who are claiming as the Supreme lord of Bharatha Varsha or the Earth, by stating their victories against the countries in the four directions...
  • But Kalidasa also did not talk about the Cholas, Satavahanas, Vakatakas or
    Pallavas who would have been a significant kingdom by his time.


    'Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence'.
  • These are, conventional wordings of the poets of earlier days, who simply mentioned the border tracts only To denote their masters as the supreme lord.

    Sircar has referered no. of victorious campaigns of ancient kings stating the four directional victories....

    Some Medieval kings Records are also bears the same...

    Can't sure what the Exact march of them?

  • Yes, you are correct, hence we must be very careful when we try to
    establish a theory taking a literary work into account. Neither these works
    are historical accounts nor the author claim so. So when we seek history
    from these, proper care must be taken. For example, Raghuvamsha is not a
    historical account of those kings, however Raj-Tarangani is such an account
    and the author of the latter work also claims for it.
  • What is kalidasa's date ?The Bitta Medallion as described by Ananda Coomaraswamy is 187 BC.Aswagosha who belongs to 1 century AD takes descriptions entirely out of Kalidasa'sepics.Scholars before the medallion discovery claimed that Kalidasa had copied fromAswagosha.Now it is the reverse case.They claim Kalidasa is an original poet and Aswagosha is more a philosopher hencehe may have taken it from Kalidasa.Defineltely the Cholas are not there in his time.As far as Pandyas are concerned, Valmiki mentions them in his Ramayana.
    Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa may not be historical document but it is valid as far as the chakravarti areas are covered totally.Nay he goes beyond the chakravarti kshetras.He describes the victory of Persia and China !!!what is missing is Raghu does not cross the sea for his conquests.

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